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Open access

Ratnaningsih, Mohammad Khoidin and Dyah Ochtorina Susanti

Abstract

The law number 21 of 2011 on Otoritas Jasa Keuangan is the beginning of a new system implication on regulating and supervising the financial services sector in Indonesia. Initially, Indonesia implemented a model of supervision by several institutions to be an integrated supervision by single institution, i.e., Otoritas Jasa Keuangan. The application of Law of Otoritas Jasa Kauangan divides the authority of banking supervision into two ways, i.e., microprudential which is the authority of Otoritas Jasa Keuangan and macrprudential which is the authority of Bank Indonesia. The law does not give clear limits on the scope of the divisions, whereas both microprudetial and macroprudential are closely related. This division of authority may complicate Bank Indonesia to to carry out its duties as a central bank, therefore it need a synergy between Otoritas Jasa Keuangan and Bank Indonesia in Banking Supervision. This research aims at giving prescriptions on synergy model between Otoritas Jasa Keuangan and Bank Indonesia that can meet the principle of justice, legal certainty and expediency. The method used is normative juridical research by examining various laws and regulations and other literature studies. This research shows the needs of synchronization between the Law of Otoritas Jasa Keuangan and other related laws to omit overlaps of authority between Otoritas Jasa Keuangan and Bank Indonesia.

Open access

Andrea Insch

Open access

Aref Alobeid, Ioannis Vidakis, Georgios Baltos and Janis Balodis

Abstract

This paper examines the involvement of Western powers in the politics of Caucasus and Mesopotamia regions around the beginning of the 20th century. It attempts to identify the ideological background of the respective historical events whirled around the geopolitical and geo-economics aspirations of the super powers of that era. The motives of the relevant tremendous investments and campaigns undertaken do not always coincide with the rhetoric and the rationale provided by politicians and spokesmen favoring the expeditions. On one hand scholars were metaphorically reviving the clash of civilizations or the crusades re-launch, while on the other hand politicians and businessmen were taking advantage of the cultural stereotypes in order to facilitate colonial interests and energy resources acquisition. All the way from the early British interventions in the Middle East to the causes of the “fragile” Treaty of the Sèvres, this study emphasizes on the industrial countries’ needs for oil along with the rivalry among the Great Powers for the resources control in the region. In addition, the analysis ends at the present time with a focus on the periodicity of the events taking place in repetition under similar patterns. The projection to the present times involves newly designed energy strategies for the Eastern Mediterranean basin, involving Cyprus in an alternative way to transfer energy toward Southern Europe.

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Rasheed Olawale Azeez and Kabiru Ishola Genty

Abstract

This paper investigated the relationship that exists among inner life, meaningful work, conditions for community, and organisational citizenship behaviour amongst Nigerian academics. The study embraced a quantitative approach using survey research design, which is ex post facto in nature with the engagement of quantitative and correlational methods. Thus, a convenience sampling technique was utilised to administer 328 questionnaires amongst the academics of two Nigerian public universities. Three hypotheses were stated and tested using inferential statistics tools via the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and the Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 22. The multivariate statistical processes used in this paper are confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling, as well as model fit indices. The results indicated an insignificant positive relationship between inner life and organisational citizenship behaviour. However, it was evident that a strong positive relationship existed between conditions for community and organisational citizenship behaviour. In contrast, the study revealed that there was no significant relationship between meaningful work and organisational citizenship behaviour. Therefore, this paper concludes that the management of universities should always communicate the mutual benefit of engaging in organisational citizenship behaviour to the members of their staff through effective conditions for community, such as aiding of staff personal growth and fair evaluation of work.

Open access

Elda Kuka, Rovena Bahiti and Ezmolda Barolli

Abstract

Nowadays real time communication is defining and conditioning our everyday life. Increased communication constitutes an added value to economic and social development of the country, but, at the same time, it exposes it to the risk of cyber nature with state and non-state actors. This is the reason why information security has become an important and crucial issue. In this paper we examine Information Security practices among IT departments in public institutions in Albania, using a survey and interviews conducted with IT staff.

Open access

Elda Kuka and Rovena Bahiti

Abstract

As users of technology in our everyday actions we need to authenticate in different applications, in fast and secure mode. Although passwords are called the least secure mode of authentication, it’s the simplicity of entering a textual password for just a few seconds, especially when a fast transaction is needed, the main advantage that textual password based authentication method has against other authentication methods. We have prepared a questionnaire that will help us to identify the practices, characteristics, and problems of creation and usage of passwords in online applications, services and social networks. The target population is a group of users who have knowledge on information technology in public administration.

Open access

Samo Drobne and Mitja Lakner

Abstract

Background: Hierarchical functional regions (FRs) can be calculated using data on interactions between basic spatial units (BSUs) and a hierarchical aggregation procedure. However, the results depend on the selected system of initial BSUs. In spatial sciences, this is known as the zonation effect, which is one of the effects of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). Objectives: In this paper, we analyse the influence of the zonation effect on a system of hierarchical functional regions. Methods/Approach: We compared two systems of hierarchical functional regions of Slovenia modelled by the Intramax aggregation procedure using the inter-municipal labour commuting flows for the same year, but for two different initial sets of municipalities. Besides, we have introduced a new measure to compare systems of hierarchical FRs. Results: The results show that the zonation effect has an influence on hierarchical functional regions. The clustering comparison measure suggested here is a metric measure, which is appropriate for comparing hierarchical FRs. Conclusions: The zonation effect has influence on hierarchical FRs. The clustering comparison measure suggested in this paper is easy to interpret, but it should be adjusted for the number of clusterings

Open access

Beáta Udvari and Isaac Kwesi Ampah

Abstract

For several years, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries continue to struggle with poverty, hunger, epidemics, access to proper sanitation and potable water etc. even though the continent is considered to be endowed with half of the world’s natural resources. Low value-added products continue to be the primary export of countries in the continent since it lacks the technical know-how to manage its resources for sustainable growth and development it envisages. This paper examines the effectiveness of aid for innovation in enhancing growth and innovative performance of SSA using the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) and fixed effect models for the period 2002 to 2015. The empirical results revealed that growth and innovation in the continent could be improved significantly if aid is more advanced to innovation and research. Also, the paper noticed that aid for innovation have more impacts in countries with the lower level of innovation and technological advancement.

Open access

Barbara Mróz-Gorgoń and Grzegorz Szymański

Abstract

The number of Internet users in Poland is permanently increasing, the vast majority of Y generation use the Internet at least once a week, while the youngest generation (born after 2000) consider the Internet to be a part of their normal life. Shopping online should be something natural and ordinary for Internet users and the main barriers of the development of e-commerce such as security of transactions, time and cost of delivery are regarded as a standard and truism. The ROPO effect is a major problem for the rapid development of the e-commerce sector. However, the analyzed clothing industry, due to the individual characteristics of products, is a different e-commerce area than others. The obtained results indicate that about 33% of women and men use the Internet as a place to get information about clothing products. Research Online, Purchase Offline, that is, search for information, reviews, or online prices, while buying in the traditional way. The purpose of the publication is to identify the size of the ROPO effect the clothing industry. In order to meet this goal, we analyzed the results of more than 4.000 respondents who have recently purchased clothing products

Open access

Zygmunt Owsiak, Krzysztof Lejman, Krzysztof Pieczarka and Tomasz Sekutowski

Abstract

The paper presents the outcomes of the research on the impact of shearing depth and flexibility of cultivator tines with cultivator points on the value of vertical forces acting thereon. The object of the research consisted in “S” tines with the flexibility coefficient of 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m∙kN−1. The investigations were carried out in field conditions in sandy clay soil with moisture of 11.2%. The forces were measured for the assumed shearing depths which were 5, 9 and 13 cm at the shearing speed of 3 m∙s−1. A stand for measurement of forces acting on soil shearing tools in the field conditions was used. It was found out that the increase of the shearing depth causes a linear increase of the vertical force, but the force gradient decreases with the growth of the tine flexibility. Moreover, it was found out that the increase of the tine flexibility at the beginning causes the increase and then the decrease of the vertical force regardless the shearing depth. The impact of flexibility on the vertical force value was described with the parabola equation. The tines flexibility, at which the highest value of vertical force may be expected, grows with the reduction of the shearing depth.