The studies on the marine and freshwater testate amoebae of the Bulgarian Black Sea littoral and some related coastal brackish lakes are briefly reviewed. So far, a total of 184 species and subspecies of testate amoebae from 18 families and 45 genera from orders of Arcellinida and Euglyphida were published in national and international journals. The underground waters of the Bulgarian marine sand supralittoral are better studied than the related continental lakes. A total of about 45 species of marine interstitial testate amoebae are known, so far, and a big part of them were for the first time described from the Black Sea littoral. It’s interesting to note the presence in the marine underground waters of the Black Sea littoral of many freshwater testate amoebae also, considered by us as eurybionts. That is due of the low and variable salinity of the littoral Black Sea waters during the year. The presence of some psammobiotic testate amoebae as Psammonobiotus lineare and Corythionella georgiana in some related brackish lakes is also of ecological interest. The general conclusion of the present synthesis is that the testate amoebae fauna of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the related with it many brackish and freshwater littoral lakes is few known yet and need more active researches.
In order for a project to be built with respect to quality, budget compliance and execution time - all required conditions, a professional management of site-level operations is required. The technical complexity, the importance of performing the work on the set deadline, the resource constraints and the substantial costs require the planning, programming and rigorous control of all the works.
A model of REM-2-type chamber was modeled with MCNPX code to study the dose-response to monoenergetic neutrons in wide energy range from thermal to 20 MeV for various compositions of gas in the chamber. The energy dependence of the total dose absorbed in the filling gas was compared with the energy dependence of ambient absorbed dose D*(10) and with experimental data. The results of the studies will be useful for designing new, improved generation of recombination chambers.
Autonomous underwater gliders are buoyancy propelled vehicles. Their way of propulsion relies upon changing their buoyancy with internal pumping systems enabling them up and down motions, and their forward gliding motions are generated by hydrodynamic lift forces exerted on a pair of wings attached to a glider hull. In this study lift and drag characteristics of a glider were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach and results were compared with the literature. Flow behavior, lift and drag forces distribution at different angles of attack were studied for Reynolds numbers varying around 105 for NACA0012 wing configurations. The variable of the glider was the angle of attack, the velocity was constant. Flow velocity was 0.5 m/s and angle of the body varying from −8° to 8° in steps of 2°. Results from the CFD constituted the basis for the calculation the equations of motions of glider in the vertical plane. Therefore, vehicle motion simulation was achieved through numeric integration of the equations of motion. The equations of motions will be solved in the MatLab software. This work will contribute to dynamic modelling and three-dimensional motion simulation of a torpedo shaped underwater glider.
The essential oil of the aerial parts of Thymus ciliatus (Desf.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family, was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 75 components were identified corresponding to 95.57% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were: elemol (6.80%), carvacrol (5.86%), γ-muurolene (5.18%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.09%), bicyclogermacrene (5.04%), β-pinene (4.49%) and curcumene (4.20%), together with other compounds at relatively low levels: 1,8-cineol (3.66%), β-eudesmol (2.92%), β-bisabolene (2.81%), β-silinene (2.75%), camphor (2.64%), germacrone (2.34%), α-zingiberene (2.12%), δ-cadinene (2.08%), caryophyllene oxide (1.90%), spathulenol (1.88%), □-caryophyllene (1.88%), ar-turmerone (1.79%), α-pinene (1.52%), limonene (1.52%), selina-4,11-diene (1.46%), curzerenone (1.41%), germacrone B (1.37%), bornyl acetate (1.31%), β-farnesene (1.28%), borneol (1.23%), myrtenal (1.16%), zingiberenol (1.15%) and sabinene (1.13%). These results differ from those of previous studies reported on this species collected from other regions of Algeria and Morocco.
The coastline of Zemmouri Bay on the northeast coast of Algeria with about 50 km of shoreline has been eroding since 1970. Changes of the sandy shoreline are continuous and occur at diverse spatial and temporal scales. This erosion is a major crisis and it potentially impacts the coastal population and natural environment. In order to understand and predict these morphological changes, an accurate description of sediment transport by waves and currents and shoreline change is important. This paper presents a comprehensive study of wave refraction, current-driven sediment transport and shoreline change. Results show that the study area exhibits a great variety of shoreline evolution trends, with erosion prevailing in the eastern and central sectors and stability or even accretion in the Western area.
The article presents research conducted with the project: ‘Additive manufacturing in conduction with optical methods used for optimization of 3D models’’ . The article begins with the description of properties of the materials used in three different additive technologies – Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Material Jetting (MJ). The next part focuses on the comparative analysis of macro- and microstructure of specimens printed in order to test selected materials in additive technologies mentioned above. In this research two types of specimens were used: dumbbell specimens and rectangular prism with hole specimens. In order to observe macrostructure specimens, they were subjected to load test until it broke. In the case of observing microstructure, they were cut in some places. Each of described additive technologies characterizes by both different way of printing and used materials. These variables have a significant influence on macro- and microstructure and fracture appearance. FDM technology specimens printed of ABS material characterized by texture surface appearance. SLS technology specimens printed of PA12 material characterized by amorphous structure. MJ technology specimens printed of VeroWhite Plus material characterized by fracture appearance which had quasi- fatigue features. The microstructure of these specimens was uniform with visible inclusions.
The article presents the description of technological trials and the results of three methods of machining carbon fiber reinforced composites panels. It also reviews the literature concerned heat affected zone in composites and its influence on material properties. As a part of the research, the cutting method using diamond coated saw was tested, as well as the milling method with two different types of carbide milling cutters. The processing of the panels was done using 4-axis CNC machine with special adapter for cutting discs in Composite Testing Laboratory (Center for Composite Technologies, Warsaw Institute of Aviation). The methods were compared in terms of machined edge quality and panel temperature during the processes. For this purpose, thermocouples were mounted into panels. Records from thermocouples were included. Edge quality and surface roughness have been checked by microscopic observation. Additionally, samples machined by each evaluated processing method were tested using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The method was used to determine the glass transition temperature of the tested material. The article conclusions contain a comparison of three processing methods in terms of cutting quality, process temperature, processing method productivity as well as DSC tests results.
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a process in which the cell membrane is damaged and leads to cell death. IRE has been used as a minimally invasive ablation tool. This process is affected by some factors. The most important factor is the electric field distribution inside the tissue. The electric field distribution depends on the electric pulse parameters and tissue properties, such as the electrical conductivity of tissue. The present study focuses on evaluating the tissue conductivity change due to high-frequency and low-voltage (HFLV) as well as low-frequency and high-voltage (LFHV) pulses during irreversible electroporation. We were used finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, to calculate the conductivity change of the liver tissue. The HFLV pulses in this study involved 4000 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 5 kHz, pulse width of 100 µs, and electric field intensity from 100 to 300 V/cm. On the other hand, the LFHV pulses, which we were used, included 8 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 1 Hz, the pulse width of 2 ms and electric field intensity of 2500 V/cm. The results demonstrate that the conductivity change for LFHV pulses due to the greater electric field intensity was higher than for HFLV pulses. The most significant conclusion is the HFLV pulses can change tissue conductivity only in the vicinity of the tip of electrodes. While LFHV pulses change the electrical conductivity significantly in the tissue of between electrodes.
This paper presents a synthesis of research carried out by authors on local materials used in construction over time in South Eastern Romania. The earth in various forms and technologies has been a perfectible building material that by technologies and specific procedures confers resistance and structural stability. For the research the authors have selected a few specific types of buildings detailing on structural compliance, their sustainability and the factors that led to the depreciation of the building.