This paper is focused on the presentation of developmental tendencies of regional disparities in Slovakia in 2001 and 2011 from the point of view of selected and relevant socio-economic and demographic indicators. To test the divergence hypothesis of the regional disparities at a district level, these are evaluated by using multidimensional analysis of 14 indicators. The overall level and development of regional disparities are measured with the help of the methods of descriptive statistics and multi-criteria assessments (integrated index). The results confirm the hypothesis of divergence development as the basic tendency of regional development in Slovakia. The presented research has documented evident time shortening of significant changes in regions drifting towards divergent development. Rapid and, up to now, unprecedented changes (employment and wages growth, enterprise development, foreign investments increase, etc.), are evident and reflected in the majority of indicators – however, with different impacts on the regional level.
The Brazilian official statistics show that the country is mainly urban, while authors including and present a more rural Brazil. The absence of a uniform way to define the rural areas in Brazil has led to diffused data about rural Brazil’s size. Therefore, are Brazilian regions predominantly urban, rural or intermediate? This paper applies the rural definition methodologies from Eurostat/European Union to the municipalities of Brazil. The results show the predominance of the intermediary category in Brazilian territory, while the population mostly lives in urban areas. However, due to methodological characteristics, this paper reinforces the necessity of developing other methodologies which would be able to identify rurality and urbanity, considering socioeconomic dimensions.
This study examines determinants of residents’ support for tourism by testing a model based on the social exchange and material culture theories. The model proposes that perceptual heritage proximity influences residents’ attitudes to positive and negative impacts of tourism, which in turn influence residents’ support for tourism. The model was tested using data gathered from a sample of 256 local residents in Kaole Village, Tanzania. Results from structural equation modelling indicate that heritage proximity has an influence on attitudes to the impacts of tourism, which in turn influence support. The findings imply that heritage proximity serves as a point of reference for residents’ evaluation of tourism, which is critical in fostering support. Findings confirm the relevance of the heritage proximity concept in explaining support for tourism. The study provides recommendations to better engage the residents in tourism development. Suggestions for future research are provided.
The age of big data opens new opportunities for urban research. As millions of users have been creating and transmitting visual representations of cityscapes (e.g., photos taken with smartphones), it is crucial to understand features of the online crowd-sourced images of cities and their relations with their offine archetypes. However, it seems that photos posted by users of social networking sites remain understudied and their informative potential has not been fully exploited yet. The aim of the conducted research was to examine and comprehend the nature of the Instagram image of the city. The paper presents the results of investigating 1867 Instagram photos featuring outdoor city views taken in Lodz, Poland in September 2015. The posted photos were classified by their components and attributes. The study revealed that Instagram content does not reflect the urban space in general. It rather selects geographies and subjects presenting aestheticized and picturesque places and objects. Nevertheless, the new components of cityscapes seem to be noteworthy for Instagram users. Finally, the paper argues that mapping Instagram content without prior and careful examination of the local context may lead to biased conclusions.
The widespread use of mobile communications has resulted in a new practice in family and social life, with significant implications for physical distance. This is because mobile communication allows users to overcome spatial issues such as distance to healthcare services, shift to person-to-person connectivity, and the blur boundaries between one point and another. The uneven distribution of healthcare facilities and distances among them has compounded the provision of follow-up care services to healthcare seekers. Therefore, this paper examined the relationship between the use of mobile telephone to access follow-up health-care services and physical distance separating out-patients from healthcare centres. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model provided the framework for the study. Using a systematic random sampling technique, a structured questionnaire focusing on socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, and income), mobile telephone usage for follow-up healthcare services and its effect on physical distance, was administered on 370 respondents at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Idi-Araba, Lagos. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between the physical distance of patients from the hospital and mobile telephone calls for follow-up healthcare services, and the result revealed a strong positive relationship between them (r = 0.898, p ≤ 0.05). The result indicates that 134 patients used mobile telephone to access follow-up health-care services. It was also found that physical distance is responsible for 89.8% of mobile telephone calls for follow-up healthcare services. Continuous use of mobile telephone technology to improve the quality of follow-up health care service provision for patient satisfaction is recommended.
Climate and weather are important resources for tourism. In particular, nature-based tourism activities and operations are largely dependent on and affected by environmental conditions and changes. Due to the significant socio-economic role of the nature-based tourism and the tourism industry, in general, in the region of southern Africa it is important to understand the dynamics between the industry and climate change. A key aspect of this understanding are perceptions and adaptation preparedness of tourism operators towards the estimated impact of climate change. There is a dearth of empirical studies on climate change perceptions and adaptation in nature-based tourism operations across southern Africa and specifically from Zimbabwe. This research gap is addressed in this article which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of climate change adaptation practices occurring in southern Africa using evidence from Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.
This paper examines the issue of poverty and social exclusion of Roma in Slovakia. It highlights the problem of poverty among Roma communities, which together with segregation leads to absolute poverty and social exclusion. Based on ethnographic research the paper examines conditions in which inhabitants of segregated Roma communities sustain their livelihoods. In the qualitative part of our research we ask how inhabitants of segregated settlements organize and manage their livelihood and what strategies and practices they use to ensure social reproduction. Further, we assess the articulations between exclusion and social networks and other spheres of assets, including formal and informal labour, state benefits and the use of material assets. We argue that spatial segregation has an enormous impact on poverty.
The third demographic transition, barely mentioned by some authors and implicit for others, refers to changes in the demographic structures of the most developed countries promoted by the most recent migratory flows, with repercussions in aspects such as age structure or the composition of the labour market. The concept of the third demographic transition revolves around the increasing presence of foreigners, many of whom take up jobs that nationals reject, as well as other more skilled posts. Using the panel data methodology, we try to explain the third demographic dividend whose impact can be seen in the labour market. The results enable us to conclude that the foreign worker differential puts downward pressure on salaries, which affects other groups. If workers are available and policies are constructive, this leads to positive results and social wealth.
Cooperation activities between Local Action Groups (LAGs) have been introduced into EU LEADER (Liaison Entre Actions de Développement de l’Économie Rurale) initiative to provide rural areas the opportunity to exchange experiences and best practices, as well as to realize common activities by pooling human and financial resources. The main purposes are to overcome isolation and add value to local development strategies. The benefits of cooperation are widely recognized but, undeniably, it can be also a difficult and time-consuming process. For this reason, evaluation is a necessary tool to measure the success of cooperation and to help actors address their strategies for the future. In this paper, an evaluation methodology is proposed and applied to an EU LEADER+ case study, the ‘Integrated Project for Rural Tourism: Environment and Qualified Hospitality’, a transnational cooperation experience led by LAG Aspromar, based in the province of Reggio Calabria, Southern Italy. Quantitative and qualitative data have been collected through the integration of three typical methods of social research: two techniques based on surveys, namely interviews with privileged actors, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and a technique based on non-survey data and the study of documents. Results can be useful to highlight pros and cons of the management of a cooperation project and to stimulate projects’ leaders on activating improvement processes.