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The phenomenon of migration has always existed during the history of man since the beginning of time, just think of the history of the diaspora of the Jewish people until the great migrations of the nineteenth century which involved several European peoples, including Italians, Germans, Poles, and non-Europeans, such as the Japanese, heading to North or South America.

This article, using official sources provided by IOM, UNHCR and other accredited international statistical sources, aims to offer a critical reflection about the motivations, routes and paths of migrants outside and inside Africa, showing that only a small part of them reach Europe.

In fact, the first attractive centre for internal migration is Côte d’Ivoire, one of the countries, together with Nigeria, which is the driving force behind the sparsely populated economy of West Africa, rich in agricultural raw materials (starting with cocoa and coffee).

Finally, particular attention is given to the Italian case because is the geographical area most affected by the landings of migrants. In fact, hostility towards migrants in Italy at the end of last year was on the increase: one Italian in two said he considered immigrants a danger and was afraid of it.


“Ostalgie” is coming from a German word referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany, and not only. It is a new multipurpose and new expression related the German terms “Nostalgie” (nostalgia in Italian) and Ost (East). Its anglicised equivalent, ostalgia, it is rhyming with “nostalgia” and it is also sometimes used. The collapse of Soviet Union and the Berlin Wall destruction, was the concept protected concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from ‘61 to ’89, It especially divided West and East European countries, the wall cut off West Berlin from almost all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989. Formally its demolition began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992 and coincides in some generation from the Warsaw Pact countries, legally the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation with the “Mutual Assistance” URSS of the birth of “ostalgie”, that it goes against with modern principle of multicultural society and globalisation of the world. At the eighth congress of the communist party Lenin recognized the right to self-determination of the populations of the empire and promised them significant concessions, although its final intent was to reach the true dictatorship of the proletariat which would have rendered the ethnic-national distinctions useless. The Soviet Union became the incubator of new nations with the dissolving of the Russian nation in the Soviet state. Does the “ostalgie” refer to the USSR, is this compatible with multiculturalism? Is it compatible with that plurality of tending different cultures that coexists in mutual respect and which implies the preservation of their specific traits by rejecting any type of homologation or fusion in the dominant culture?


Migration flows are part of human history. The process of globalization, if on the one hand it seems to favour the movement of human beings, on the other hand it is creating the conditions for the recovery of migratory flows, especially within some areas of the world and, in part, directed towards advanced development countries. This creates problems of acceptance on the part of the host with respect to the customs and habits of the guest. Resistance to reception, used for political ends by populist parties, has deep roots that have to do with psychological and social factors: defence mechanisms, stereotypes and prejudices. The article stresses the importance of training in overcoming these obstacles to building a society that is first multicultural and then intercultural.


Aim: A massive flood due to exceptional rainfalls devastated the town of Genoa on 9 October 2014. Media reports focused on the disaster, its causes and the political accountabilities. Reading facts after the event is commonly biased by the hindsight perspective and the aim of the paper is to investigate the amount and the potential effects of hindsight bias in terms of citizens risk perception and community resilience.

Method: We performed a qualitative analysis of the narratives in the national and local news reports during the aftermath to investigate occurrences of a blaming attitude and cognitive biases.

Results: The results showed a considerable amount of sentences that were focused on blaming the forecasters, the Civil Protection System, and the local administration. Many narratives were affected by hindsight bias and described the events as simple and linear chain reactions. This led to counterfactual biases, assuming that a simple intervention on a single factor could have prevented the tragic outcome.

Conclusion: We claim that the biased nature of the media narratives could affect the citizens’ risk perception and their attitude towards the institutions, increasing their exposure to future flood-related threats. We propose the appropriate language would generate correct cognitive frames and, therefore, safer behaviour.


Subject and purpose of work: The main objective of the article is to recommend some solutions in the area of e-tourism which could be introduced by the local government in Wałbrzych as part of activities initiated in 2017 for the development of the Smart City concept.

Materials and methods: The implementation of the objective required a detailed analysis and evaluation of the “Strategy for Sustainable Development of Wałbrzych City until 2020”as well as the key task areas of the Smart City Program Council set up in the city, including Task Teams implementing projects of smart urban solutions. In the course of the research, a literature review was also conducted to explore the ways of defining the concept of e-tourism.

Results: As a result of the literature research, the authors emphasized different aspects (dimensions) of e-tourism and described the e-tourism model for tourist consumption. The analysis of the strategic municipal documents showed that they did not contain any direct references and plans regarding the development of activities in the area of e-tourism. The current study offers recommendations for the growth of e-tourism in Wałbrzych.

Conclusions: In the context of the realisation of “Smart City for the city of Wałbrzych” program, the concept of e-tourism, according to the authors, is an opportunity for the development of tourism in the city and in the region. The catalogue of possible solutions is open and their implementation requires taking into account the needs of different groups of stakeholders, including people with disabilities and the elderly.


Subject and purpose of work: The article presents the concept of smart villages formulated in EU documents. Its purpose is to characterize the concept of smart villages - its assumptions, possibilities and implementation limitations.

Materials and methods: Literature studies and the analysis of documents.

Results: A comparative analysis of the smart villages and smart city concept was performed. The theoretical foundations and the determinants of its implementation were discussed.

Conclusions: The concept of smart villages provides an answer to the search for ways of implementing the concept of sustainable development. The concept is in the initial phase of its formulation and application. It is intended to strengthen the territorial capital of the countryside, while social and technological innovations are a tool for its implementation. Among the barriers to implementing this concept the following ones have to be mentioned: low openness of the rural community to change, low innovation capacity and low level of social capital, low capacity of the local markets, spatial distance, poorly developed transport and communication network.


Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the analysis is the concept of rural development in the European Union countries and its connection with the evolution of the common agricultural policy and the transformation of the cohesion policy. The aim of the study is to discover and assess the scale and method of supporting the rural development in the European Union countries through common agricultural policy and to present the underlying theoretical-cognitive and political-practical premises for shaping rural development strategies.

Materials and methods: The official documents and subject literature are submitted for critical analysis and evaluation by authors.

Results: This paper presents methods of defining and classifying rural areas and rural development through common agricultural policy and cohesion policy. It specifically outlines the concepts of multi-functional and intelligent development linked to the Europe 2020 strategy and the Cork political declarations. The new concept of smart villages and rural-urban partnership is also presented.

Conclusion: The processes of rural policy separation and the need for creating national methods of the coordination of community policies and the use of European funds are indicated.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the paper is to identify non-economic factors influencing employment in non-governmental organizations in the Subcarpathian Province.

Materials and methods: Surveys were conducted in a group of 30 people managing non-governmental organizations.

Results: In the Subcarpathian Province, the factors not connected to economy that encourage involvement in the work of non-governmental organisations include education, marital status, labour market activity, gender, religiousness, and moral authority associated with charitable activities. The factors such as age, personal experience of difficult life situations, or observing charity activities done by family members and friends have an insignificant effect on the involvement in the work of nongovernmental entities.

Conclusions: The activities of state institutions of social policy whose goal is to increase the participation of citizens in the third sector entities should aim to give them an opportunity of obtaining the highest level of education possible, stable employment in the labour market, as well as creating conditions for families to function properly. Moreover, public institutions should conduct social campaigns to show citizens that working in the third sector enriches their social and personal life.


Subject and purpose of work: The article analyses the influence of optional instruments applied in Poland as part of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy on the average support provided to farms in individual provinces.

Materials and methods: The study was based on data from the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture as well as quantitative and analytical methods, especially simulations and comparative variant analysis.

Results: The optional instruments applied in Poland increased the average support provided to farms in central and eastern Poland. The average amount of support paid per farm would have been bigger in northern, western and southern provinces if optional instruments had not been implemented. Primarily, the introduction of both redistributive payment and production-related support (all forms of this support taken together) resulted in a decrease in the average aid per holding in the same group of provinces and at the same time an increase in this size in other provinces (compared to the situation in which the amounts for financing these instruments would be distributed under the single area payment).

Conclusions: The analysis of the influence of redistributive payment and coupled support on the average amount of financial aid per farm in individual provinces shows that the consequences of using these instruments were very similar to each other in their effect on the variable under study.