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Subject and purpose of work: The paper focuses on identifying and assessing selected conditions and limitations of smart rural development in Poland. The concepts of smart development pointed out in the literature were used to analyse the results of field studies carried out in 2011 and 2016 in ten purposefully selected villages located in various regions of the country.

Materials and methods: The conclusions were drawn on the basis of empirical material which took a form of quantitative data and qualitative information gathered from the interviews with village mayors (sołtys) and observations of the interviewers. For the purpose of the paper the statistical methods were used and the analysis of the content of responses was performed.

Results and conclusions: The results of the surveys indicated a presence of both the potential of smart development in the surveyed villages and the barriers to it. The important determinants to activate local economic progress based on knowledge, education and new technologies were connected mainly with a convenient location and the environmental and cultural resources available. As for an insufficient level of valorisation of the aforementioned elements, it proved to be an obstacle to this process, which was largely due to the limited accumulation of human and social capital.


Thanks to the tumultuous development of digital technologies, nowadays we live in a world without boundaries, characterized by liquid communities that meet and collide, sometimes denying mutual recognition. We move in a communicative bulimia where information runs like in a circus where the sense and the value of ‘communicating’ are often lost, fuelling forms of misunderstanding, violence and exclusion that contribute to fuel discomfort and isolation. In the information and knowledge society, communication is increasingly discriminating for emancipation and empowerment of people, organizations, and communities. For this reason, in this essay, we intend to deepen both the evolution of the community’s space through digital technologies and the value and role of the concept of empowerment applied to community development. The essence of the essay is to reflect on its social implications in terms of welfare communities and valorization of the heritage of relational goods that are constitutive of every social and community space.


Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the emergence and shaping of basic economic issues since the dawn of human economic activity. Contemporary views on important economic issues have their roots in antiquity. The shaping of concepts such as money, interest, contract, credit as a part of the law, began a long time ago and exerted an influence on the way they are understood today.

Materials and methods: The basis for the considerations is the study of literature on the history of the development of economics and the science of management in economic, philosophical and ethical aspects. The work has shown the non-linear nature of the development of new phenomena emerging in volatile political, technical, religious and moral conditions, which are largely spontaneous, and a reciprocal overlap of various fields of knowledge in a general and individual sense. Particular discoverers were found to present a wide spectrum of interests.

Results: Historically, the development of economic knowledge began with the issues from the border of economics and management, from microeconomics (household) to macroeconomics (money); little information concerns large undertakings such as irrigation systems, pyramids or waging wars.

Conclusions: Generally speaking - monarchs’ edicts came before the deliberations of thinkers, concrete reasoning came before abstract considerations.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study was to evaluate activities of farms located in the Czarnorzecko-Strzyżowski Landscape Park according to the principles of sustainable development.

Materials and methods: Survey research was carried out in the Korczyna commune among randomly selected farm owners at the turn of 2014 and 2015.

Results and conclusion: Agricultural production is rather versatile and unspecialized in most of the farm-holdings covered by the study in Korczyna Local Government Area (LGA). Cereals dominate the cropping system, while animal husbandry is predominantly by using the Simmental cattle breed. The farmers are aware that they farm in specific conditions, where sustainable land use is crucial for protecting biodiversity and preserving cultural heritage, thus permitting inhabitants to live in an uncontaminated environment. The Korczyna Local Government Area enjoys favourable conditions for the running of ecological farms, but with farmers visibly lacking in motivation as they consider such farming system as unprofitable, besides requiring lots of time and work.


Subject and purpose of work: The article deals with the issue of risk mainly in banking activity. Different definitions of risk were reviewed as tools for risk management in banks and for regulatory activities by institutions. Materials and methods: The research material was taken from the subject literature and official documents of financial market institutions - international organizations, as well as foreign and domestic financial institutions. They were mainly legal acts, standards and guidelines/recommendations. Particular attention was paid to documents published by banking supervision authorities. Results: As a result of the study, the multiplicity of concepts and approaches were found to define and identify banking risks as the categorizations presented by regulators seemed to be a standard to apply in risk management practices. Conclusions: Among the risk categorization used by banks, the leading ones have been presented by supervisory authorities. Defining the types of risk in operations should be the first stage of the internal risk management process which is necessary for banks’ survival. Ensuring high quality of the implementation of the first stage determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the entire process. The decisive requirements set by European and national regulators with regard to banks’ application of risk categorization as part of the risk management system contributed to mitigating the phenomena related to the global financial crisis among banks in Europe.


Planetary interdependence makes the task of states and international organizations to guarantee security inside and outside national borders ever more urgent. The tendency is to widen the space from national to international and to conceive of security as multidimensional for the satisfaction of human needs, assumed as priority needs with respect to those of the States. The old concept of national security must today confront the new concept of human security cultivated within the United Nations, which places the fundamental rights of the individual and of people at the centre of attention and lays the foundations for overcoming the traditional politics of power.

The concept of human security emphasises the security of the individual and his protection from political violence, war and arbitrariness. It takes account of the strong correlation between peace policy, human rights policy, migration policy and humanitarian policy.

The contribution provides, through a series of social indicators such as the Global Peace Index (GPI), Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the World International Security and Policy Index (WISPI), a framework on risk, security, human rights violations in the African continent and examines some significant case studies related to sub-Saharan Africa.


With the incremented mass movement the society is in a significant transformation, this fact can be a risk for social unrest. Demographic evolution and change of the society stress the challenges for the institutions. The school represent one of the institutions where future citizens are educated and formed. The classroom is a mirror of the society in change. Today the school is a place of meeting of different cultures; we have more and more multicultural classes with pupils from different countries. The proposed work will analyse how intercultural education can influence the risk of social unrest and improve social contentment. In particular, will be stressed the concept of how the education of intercultural competences can allow the future adults to participate in a constructive and effective way to social and professional life.

Method: empirical analysis of literature and research done in the field of intercultural education analysis of the current situation through the ecological model of Brofenbrenner with a specific focus on micro and mesosystem and correlation between all ecosystems.


This is a work between a very short introduction and handbook to understand what diplomacy is and to study it. The author introduces diplomacy to start form historical perspective and to provide significant examples to illustrate the art of diplomacy in action. Diplomacy has evolved greatly, coming to mean diverse things, to different persons, at several time, reaching from the sophisticated to inelegant and ordinary. this paper presents the first attempts to measure student learning quantitatively by administering a pre-test, post-test survey supplemented by a glossary of diplomatic terms.


Over the past twenty years, the principles of ‘full-cost recovery’ and ‘the user pays’ have become prominent in water utility pricing across the EU. At the same time, uniform pricing has been introduced by local authorities to boost equality between users in a given territory. Two case studies in France and Italy reveal different processes, depending upon the institutional setting, though in both cases EU regulations exert increasing influence on the water pricing structure. A literature review and study of specific documentation was used to prepare about thirty semi-directive interviews with public owners, private firms, and users’ organizations, all conducted face-to-face. The overview presented here has highlighted several trends common to the two case studies, France and Italy, in line with the EU standardization of water pricing structures. The differences arise from different national regulations and territorial models. Local congruence in pricing clearly accompanies reinforced cooperation between municipalities, promoting the legitimacy and visibility of public authorities but inducing complex economic mechanisms such as cross-subsidies and amendments to delegation agreements.