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Abstract

The concept of global cities and the importance of transnationalisation processes in their formation are widely acknowledged. However, the debate surrounding global city identification continues. The study introduces a new approach to evaluating global cities by primarily looking at them as locales for foreign multinational corporations. By analysing the location decisions made by foreign TNCs in the Forbes 2000 rankings, two things become apparent: the “nodality” of US global cities and their hierarchical pattern. Our findings show the key role that Alpha global cities play in attracting and fostering international business. We identify five uneven groups of cities. These groups are defined in accordance with our methodology and are as follows: the New York city-hegemon, leading cities, heavyweight cities, middleweight cities and outsider cities. The article specifies several key factors determining a city’s attractiveness to foreign corporations: its geo-economical power, functional specialisation, location, historical and cultural ties, and position on different sectoral markets.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to make a typology of industrial towns according to their economic performance and to establish place-specific local factors influencing the typology and their territorial distribution. We collected 15 indicators of economic performance for 23 small industrial towns in Slovenia, and with the method of Principle Component Analysis with k-means clustering made a typology of small industrial towns. The results show a great variety of small industrial towns, with many of them having a strong economic performance. In the discussion, we relate the findings to the overall transformation of industry in the post-socialist context, to re-industrialisation tendencies and to place-specific factors such as peripherality and specific historical events (polycentric policies). We conclude with the call to continue studying small industrial towns through the prism of opportunities and to address their weaknesses and maximise their place-specific strengths.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: Integrated fare to date is essential for the efficient functioning of city transport services and for the involvement of citizens to shift from private to public transport. Implementation of this kind is a necessary component of the future development of the city in the direction of smart mobility.

Materials and methods: The research focuses on evaluating the barriers and challenges towards the implementation of an integrated fare in Ukraine, mainly using the city of Kyiv as a case study.

Results: The article analyzes early attempts to introduce an integrated fare, problems in the way of implementation and, basically, the experience of the EU cities, which may later be adopted. Next, it outlines some critical aspects in the relationship between government policy, city authorities, transport operators and city residents in the context of the introduction of an integrated fare.

Conclusions: The study highlights such priority challenges as legal, organizational, technical and social.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The objective of the study is to characterise the status and nature of local authorities’ relations with local communities and to assess the importance of local relations in the process of strengthening local innovation.

Materials and methods: The survey method was employed in the research and a questionnaire was sent to heads of communes /mayors via electronic means. The research material consisted of 105 questionnaire forms.

Results: There is a perceived imbalance in the development of interactions with social and economic actors to the disadvantage of interactions with economic sector representatives. Increasing local innovation rooted in the economic dimension of the development processes of the analysed local systems has been revealed to be of a relatively lesser importance. Local Action Groups are a major contributor to the development and innovation process, mainly in the social dimension. Local relations are not perceived by the representatives of local authorities as particularly important factors of regional innovation.

Conclusions: The analysis of the local systems revealed a need to increase the scale of activity of local government representatives as part of developing relations with the economic sector. Opportunities should be sought arising from building local partnerships aimed at the implementation of pro-innovative, multi-stakeholder projects, which will have a greater capacity to influence local development processes.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the conducted research and analyzes was the attempt to assess the impact of selected factors over tourist activity of people with disabilities and factors related to the immediate environment of people with disabilities

Materials and methods: A total of 5 000 respondents were subjected to the quantitative research. Participants of the research were adults with legally recognized disabilities. In the research, there was used the method of a diagnostic survey.

Results: Tourist activity of disabled people living in rural areas in Poland concerns only about 50% of respondents. Leaving the place of permanent residence in a free time is the most often declared by young and middle-aged people with higher, secondary and post-secondary education, professionally active, married people with mental and sensory disabilities.

Conclusions: Factors stimulating participation in tourism are the level of education and professional activity of respondents. In the assessment of respondents the important factor is also a general family situation.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: This research was conducted to measure the influence of the Suramadu Bridge on the reduction of rural poverty and to determine the impact of production factors such as physical capital, natural capital, human capital and financial capital on poverty before and after the Suramadu Bridge began operating in Kabupaten Bangkalan.

Materials and methods: This study adapted the model used by Nashwari et al (2017) which was analysed applying Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The data from Village Potential 2007 and 2017 was used in the research.

Results: Many production factors in the village did not have a significant effect on the poverty reduction before the Suramadu Bridge began operating. After the Suramadu Bridge opened, it has had a significant negative impact on poverty. The number of farmers, rice fields, non-agricultural activities, superior products, skills facilities and credit facilities has a significant positive effect on the reduction of the poverty level.

Conclusions: The existence of the Suramadu Bridge has increased the influence of production factors in the villages on the poverty reduction in Kabupaten Bangkalan.

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The thesis presents an overview of the economic issues which existed in the European Middle Ages and modern times, prior to establishing classical economics.

Materials and methods: The thesis was prepared based on the literature review which included scientific publications and websites devoted to the economy, as well as to social and cultural changes. During the Middle Ages, the mere survival was no longer satisfactory for humans; the times saw the accumulation of wealth, which turned out to be a prerequisite for participation in social life.

Results: The initial intellectual narrative was dominated by canonists who studied the laws emerging from religious doctrines, gradually shifting their focus to philosophy, emphasizing the importance of research methods based on reason. Many universal ideas were introduced at the time.

Conclusions: a) The focus on the method used as a research tool accelerated the emergence of particular areas of scientific studies; b) Christianity constituted the cultural core in the medieval period;c) Theology, in conjunction with philosophy, constituted the source allowing for the emergence of social sciences.