In the paper, the influence of different types of bedding and backfill soil surrounding underground sewage duct on its deformation was analysed. Impact of increased soil lateral pressure was examined by considering the construction of an embankment nearby the underground pipeline. Numerical computations of three different variants of bedding and backfill soil surrounding the pipe were carried out. Displacements and deformation of the pipe were calculated using the finite element method with adoption of elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model of soil. Subsequent stages of the construction were taken into account. Shear strength reduction method was applied to evaluate the factor of safety of the entire system. Finally, the results and conclusions were depicted.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the prediction performances of three statistical methods, namely, information value (IV), weight of evidence (WoE) and frequency ratio (FR), for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) at the east of Constantine region. A detailed landslide inventory of the study area with a total of 81 landslide locations was compiled from aerial photographs, satellite images and field surveys. This landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset (70%) for training the models, and the remaining (30%) was used for validation purpose. Nine landslide-related factors such as slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, distance to streams, lithology, distance to lineaments, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and stream density were used in the landslide susceptibility analyses. The inventory was adopted to analyse the spatial relationship between these landslide factors and landslide occurrences. Based on IV, WoE and FR approaches, three landslide susceptibility zonation maps were categorized, namely, “very high, high, moderate, low, and very low”. The results were compared and validated by computing area under Road the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). From the statistics, it is noted that prediction scores of the FR, IV and WoE models are relatively similar with 73.32%, 73.95% and 79.07%, respectively. However, the map, obtained using the WoE technique, was experienced to be more suitable for the study area. Based on the results, the produced LSM can serve as a reference for planning and decision-making regarding the general use of the land.
The aerial parts of T. gallica collected from three different locations (arid, humid and semi-arid) were extracted using ethyl acetate. The crude extracts were subjected to phenolic appraisal and antiproliferative activity using ELISA and xCELLigence assays. The total phenolic and flavonoids were evaluated using appropriate techniques to give a yield of total phenolics ranging between 238.46 and 348.56 mg GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)/g dry weight extract. The flavonoids yield was found to vary from 36.6 to 103.14 mg QE (quercetin equivalent)/g dry weight extract. Moreover, the extracts were tested against rat brain tumor (C6) and human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines and displayed important differences in activity. These disparities highlighted the effect of climatic factors as quality determinants of secondary metabolites and therefore as a key control of the biological therapeutic effect.
The Quantitative Structure Retention Relationship (QSRR) approach has been applied to model the gas chromatographic retention of 16 alkyloxazoles and 16 alkylthiazoles on three capillary columns with different polarities. The potential of the Charge-related Topological Index (CTI) developed by one of the authors (I.B.) was investigated as a descriptor in QSRR linear multivariate regressions. Calculated values of atomic charges and the indication of the presence of substitutions in different positions in the solute structures are used to generate regressions. Analysis of the equations derived proves their ability to describe and evaluate the participants in the chromatographic separation process. The present quantitative characterization of the chromatographic retention of alkylazoles shows the potentials of deriving QSRR models to exhibit the retention intermolecular interactions.
The green areas play a significant role in keeping the urban population healthy. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in the urban and peri-urban parks lately. The Nature Park Shumen plateau and Shumen City Park are an important green area for residents of Shumen city. The aim of this study was to make comparative analysis of the qualities of the Nature Park Shumen Plateau and the Shumen City Park as green spaces.
For quality assessment 10 criteria were used. The criteria were grouped in four categories - Green space placement, Green space use, Environment and Biodiversity. Five-point Likert scale was used to determine satisfaction with each of the 10 criteria. Nine experts did the evaluation of the criteria.
In category “Green space placement”, the Nature Park Shumen Plateau and the Shumen City Park had very similar evaluations however there were big differences in the individual criteria. According to the category “Green space use, both parks showed rather similar results. Concerning the category „Environment”, the Nature Park Shumen Plateau received slightly higher assessment and the category “Biodiversity” was ranked as twice higher.
The results show that the Nature Park Shumen Plateau and the Shumen City Park possess good quality as a green area, as the Nature Park Shumen Plateau was higher assessed compared to the Shumen City Park.
The paper concentrates on post-processing of data necessary for pressure measurements using Pressure Sensitive Paints (PSP). The purpose of the study was to develop and test procedures for extraction of the surface pressure distribution from the images captured during PSP tests. The core issues addressed were reduction of the influence of model movement and deformation during wind tunnel run and synchronization between conventional pressure tap measurements and PSP data, necessary for in-situ calibration. In the course of the studies, two approaches on image registration were proposed: the first based on geometric transformation of control points pairs with cross-correlation tuning and the second based on similarity finding and estimation of geometric transformation of the images. Performance of the developed algorithm was tested with use of experimental set-up allowing for controlled movement of the imagined target with micrometer resolution. Both of the proposed approaches to PSP image resection proved to perform well. After testing of the software, the PSP system was used for determination of the pressure field on flat plate exposed to impinging jet. The presented procedures and results can be useful for research groups developing in-house PSP measurements systems for wind tunnel tests and internal flow investigations.
The aim of the study is to describe the testate amoebae fauna in seven reservoirs in the Northeastern Bulgaria and to investigate the relationship of taxonomic diversity and abundance of these organisms to the some characteristics of the reservoirs. A total of 52 species, varieties and forms belonging to 15 genera were identified in the benthal of the coastal zone. There are significant differences in species richness and abundance between the testacea of different reservoirs. Number of taxa was significantly higher in the Beli Lom (29 species and 12 genera) and Loznitsa (22 species and 13 genera). Most of the reservoirs - Kara Michal, Bogdantsi, Isperih, Lipnik and Brestovene have extremely poor fauna compared to other similar reservoirs. This is confirmed by the low values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, which varied between 1.04 and 2.396, as well as by the other indices used to assess the environmental conditions in the reservoirs. The data of the regression analysis showed that a relation between age, surface area and water volume of the reservoirs and the species richness and abundance of testacea is not established.
The article aims to present the results of analysis and evaluation of using energy clusters as a bulk electricity storage. There were developed an analytical model of a sample microgrid (on-grid) and analysed using a software dedicated for optimizing such microgrids. The model of microgrid consist on electricity commercial and residential loads, photovoltaic and wind installations and batteries.
Anthropogenic activities cause environmental pollution and alter biogeochemical cycles. Soils in cities and their vicinity are exposed to different pollutants. Nature Park Shumen Plateau is a protected area situated in the proximity of Shumen (Bulgaria). The aim of this research was to compare elemental composition of surface soil samples from Nature Park with two areas in Shumen city.
Soil samples from seven sites on the territory of Nature Park and from two urban sites were collected. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence technique. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed to interpret the complex data.
The content of 24 elements was determined: Br, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb. Results presented here and previously showed that concentrations of heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb are below the upper limit according to Bulgarian legislation. Concentrations of Mn and Fe in samples from Nature Park were comparable to the literature data reported for unpolluted areas. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis show similarity of the content of 24 elements between samples from Nature Park and from Shumen city. These findings are in accordance with our previous positive results from Allium-test: cytogenetic endpoints showed a presence of harmful compounds in Nature Park soils.
The content of heavy metals in the surface soils studied show a lack of environmental risk for Nature Park. However, a similar distribution pattern of the investigated elements in the park and two anthropologically influenced areas in Shumen city indicated a potential hazard in Nature Park.