There are a variety of body aches that fall under the umbrella term of Musculoskeletal Discomforts (MSDs). These can be distinguished based on the level of pain suffered by the patient, ranging from mild and sporadic to serious, constant and fatal. It has been suggested that a link exists between MSDs and risk factors involving one’s occupational conditions and physicality. Examining the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal discomforts based on the severity among office workers was the main objective of this study. In order to achieve this objective, we had, in February 2015, selected from a population of 20 000 Malaysian office workers, 753 subjects within the age range of 20-50 years who have had a minimum of a year’s working experience. For this study, a form of structured questionnaire, known as the Cornell questionnaire, has been evaluated and put to use. Under the watch of the researchers, the subjects were instructed to complete the questionnaire in the morning before they begin their respective jobs. Based on their responses, the Cornell questionnaire has revealed that at least one case of severe pain in the neck, shoulder or lower back, respectively, is suffered by 69.7% of the subjects. In the case of neck-related aches, 15% low pain, whereas 51% involved mild pain and 33.9% were cases of severe pain. That being said, 19.3% low pain in the lower back, while 50.7% suffered from mild pain and 30% had severe pain in the same region. Percentages of 34.9% for high severity, 45.4% for mild severity and 19.7% for low severity were simultaneously reported in the shoulder section. In a nutshell, the study has revealed that, in comparison with body aches in the arms, knees, upper back, forearms, wrists, hands, hips and thighs, the subjects are more vulnerable to body aches in the neck, shoulders and lower back.
The Mason type III and IV radial head fractures are severe injuries that lead to decreased range of motion, alteration in the kinematics, the load transfer and the stability of the elbow. They are often in conjunction with ligament injuries, anterior or posterior joint dislocations and fractures of the coronoid process, the humeral capitulum and the olecranon. The resection of the head leads to elbow instability, late complications and arthrosis of the elbow. The open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in Mason type III and IV fractures is not able to restore and sustain the anatomical structure and function of the radiocapitellar joint. That is why these fractures require arthroplasty. The best results are reported with the use of metal bipolar prosthetics. We present our initial experience with radial head arthroplasty on three patients with mean follow up 18 months and a review of the English literature.
Despite recent studies showing that serum Cystatin C (CysC) is a better marker for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than the ubiquitously used creatinine, the clinical utility of these findings remains to be evaluated. This marker is very sensitive for allograft function after renal transplantation. The concentration of CysC was compared with that of the creatinine. Decreased renal function was followed in 64 transplanted patients. Serum CysC significantly correlated with creatinine in healthy controls (r = 0.625, p < 0.0001), whereas in the transplanted patients the mean serum creatinine and CysC concentrations were: 81 ± 13 mmol/L and 0.90 ± 0.22 mg/L, respectively. Serum CysC and creatinine significantly correlated throughout the post transplantation period (r = 0.686, p < 0.001), but we confirmed differences between kinetics of these parameters. In the first four days after transplantation the CysC concentration was normalized faster than the creatinine concentration. Development of acute rejection episode (between 5 and 7 days) showed high sensitivity and specificity of the changes of CysC compared with those of creatinine.
HIV-1 infection keeps on being a global problem because of its pandemic character and the impossibility for eradication. The combined antiretroviral therapy (АRТ) remains the only treatment which has proven its effectiveness for maintaining the life of HIV positive patients. Because of long term (life time) duration of this therapy, it is necessary to monitor patients for possible drug toxicity. The aim of our research is to evaluate the changes of basic laboratory examinations while conducting a long-term АRТ. We analyzed basic laboratory studies of 145 HIV-infected Bulgarian patients in the current research. The patients were separated into four groups according to their treatment regimen. They were on dispensary monitoring and were being treated in the Department for Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency in the Specialized Hospital for Active Treatment of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases “Prof. Ivan Kirov” - Sofia. Our results showed that combined ART led to changes in blood count, alanin-aminotransferase (ALT), glucose and total cholesterol. Some of these changes are significant for some of the drugs administered. The current ART does not lead to severe toxicity and life-threatening conditions such as those which were observed in the first few years of ART introduction.
The objective of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness of the combined gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs; 785 nm) and superluminiscent diods (SLD; 633 nm) phototherapy (MedX 1100 device) for the treatment of 62 patients with 7 of the most common pain-related temporomandibular disorders with highest sensitivity and specificity according to diagnostic criteria DC/TMD. Using paired samples t-test a positive effect in the pain relief for all tested conditions was demonstrated. The most manifested and statistically significant reduction of pain was found in arthralgia attributed to osteoarthritis and systemic (rheumatoid) arthritis (p = 0.0000001), and disc displacement without reduction with limited opening (p = 0.0000002). Similar levels of pain reduction were found in arthralgia attributed to subluxation, myofascial pain with referral, local myalgia (p values vary between 0.000001 and 0.000284); the lowest values were recorded for myofascial pain (p = 0.001789) and hypermobility-related myalgia (p = 0.018443). The combined laser and SLD phototherapy can be defined as very effective treatment option particularly in pain reduction of internal derangement disorders as well as in some myogenic-related pain conditions affected by TMJ dysfunction.
A new optical method for reduction of local tissue hypoxia is proposed. It is shown that this method of phototherapy allows the control of a local oxygen concentration in tissue. Different aspects of biomedical application of this phenomenon are discussed. The results of in vivo experimental investigation of the laser-induced photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin in cutaneous blood vessels and its role in tissue oxygenation are presented. The rates of oxygen saturation SpO2 in blood and their dependence on the wavelength of the transcutaneous laser irradiation have been experimentally measured.
Overhangs from different restorations are an iatrogenic error with different results, short and long term consequences related to bone changes and periodontal diseases. Amalgam “tattoos”, idiopathic subgingival hypertrophy, marginal periodontitis and bone reductions in the intradental septum are major problems. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the frequency of traumatic restorations in distal teeth and clinical criteria, related to the x-ray findings. Evaluating criteria, for repairing the overhangs or for replacement of the restorations, is also a goal. Three hundred and sixteen - 316 patients from both sexes, 632 dental x-rays with 948 distal teeth and 632 restorations, at least two radiographs for each patient, were analyzed. Overhangs are classified in three groups: small, middle and large. In the criteria bone changes from the overhangs are analyzed separately from the existing or nonexisting bone changes from a generalized periodontal diseases. The frequency of iatrogenic changes in this cohort group is 10.6% from 632 restored teeth. This is a relatively small number compared with the other published studies. These overhangs are on distal teeth in sound teeth arches which makes them difficult for corrections. The evaluated criteria for replacement based on x-ray findings and clinical experience includes: operative and nonoperative corrections, restoration replacement, perio- and endo-therapy and follow up terms for secondary caries.
Based on their biological, analgesic and antibacterial effect, lasers are becoming more widely used in clinical practice in the recent years. In order to obtain a therapeutic effect and to prevent dental pulp alteration in the treatment of hard tooth tissue, the parameters of laser radiation should be precisely controlled. Upon irradiation of dental pulp, these effects are dependent on the permeability of light through the enamel and dentin. The purpose of our study was to examine the penetration of light through dentin, according to the wavelength.The absorption of light was also studied. For the aim of our investigation 30 dentin samples with thickness 1 mm of extracted human teeth (premolars and molars) were prepared. The absorption and transmission of light in the range 350-1000 nm in its passage through the samples were studied using a spectrophotometer Ocean Optics QE65000. The obtained results showed that the light absorption of dentin in spectral range 350-600 nm depends on the wavelength. When light sources, emitting in the wavelength range above 600 nm were used, the dependence was low. These features should be taken into account in the choice of irradiation wavelength and a light source.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are highly sought-after in order to achieve muscle growth and better physical attributes. The study was conducted to measure the prevalence and attitudes towards the use of AASs among university students. 1008 male students from Isfahan University, Iran, between the ages of 18 and 25 years (23.3 ± 1.2 years) completed a questionnaire that investigated participation in bodybuilding, level of sport competition, participation in sports and recreational activities, AASs use, prevalence, knowledge among users, attitudes, as well as intent to continue using AASs in the future. 8% of respondents had used AASs and 6% currently use AASs. 71% of users believed using only a small amount of AASs or using AASs with anti-toxic drugs would not result in any harm, 10% indicated that AASs were harmless and 19% admitted to taking AASs despite knowing the adverse effects. 33% of respondents believed that they needed to use AASs to ensure athletic success and 26% believed that athletes should be allowed to use AASs without consequence. The prevalent use of AASs is a public health concern which implies that educational programmes at university level are needed to educate students about the adverse effects of AASs use