The aim of this research on questions and interrogative sentences in theoretical scientific texts has been, alongside with an analysis of their function, to confirm their explicit (non)occurrence. In order to achieve the intended aim, the research was based on a textual corpus representing present-day Czech academic monological discourse, involving a strict selection of various genres and scientific contents. The corpus includes team and authorial monographs, which are thematically divided into five fields: technical sciences (1); sciences of inanimate nature (2); medical and biological sciences (3); humanities and social sciences (4); agricultural and biological-environmental sciences (5). Despite their low frequency, interrogative sentences regularly occur in theoretical discourse, mostly as ‘false’ questions, both yes/no and wh-question types. In humanities and social sciences thus in contemporary scientific discourse, questions and interrogative sentences are used to dynamise the emotional neutrality and rigidity of technical exposition, enhancing the textual interactivity, or activating the recipient. Therefore, the occurrence of explicitly formulated questions is rather sporadic and, as a stylistic or rhetorical tool, they are more frequently used employed in popular scientific style.
Negotiation of identities in communication entails affirming the identities we want others to recognize in us and ascription of identities we mutually assign to each other in communication. The study of intercultural communication focuses on cultural identity as the principal identity component that defines intercultural communication. In this article, the assumption that cultural group membership factors determine the context of intercultural communication is questioned. The article examines how intercultural interlocutors negotiate their identities in various intercultural interactions. The aims of the research presented in this paper are: 1) to examine which identities - cultural, personal, or social - intercultural interlocutors activate in intercultural communication; 2) to determine whether interlocutors’ intercultural communication is largely influenced by their cultural identities; 3) and to identify situations in which they activate their cultural identities (3). The research data were collected from 263 international students studying at Masaryk University in Brno in the years 2010 - 2016. Although the research results are not conclusive, they indicate that cultural identities predominate in the students’ ethnocentric views and that stereotypes constrain the students’ cultural identities and affect the negotiation of identities in intercultural communication.
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is an instructional approach that aims to develop learners’ communicative competence and focuses on the use of tasks as the main unit of instruction. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of strong and weak versions of TBLT approach over more traditional approaches in improving reading comprehension of Iranian elementary-level EFL learners. Moreover, the distinction between the strong and weak versions of this approach is taken into account in order to investigate which version is more beneficial over the other version. To achieve the objective, 90 male learners in the 15-17 age range who were studying in an institute in Rasht were selected. The findings showed that utilizing both versions of TBLT approach can provide tremendous opportunities for learners to enhance their reading comprehension compared to traditional language teaching methods. More specifically, the results of this study revealed that the use of the weak version of TBLT approach leads the learners to more proficiency in reading comprehension. It is worth pointing out that this study was conducted with Iranian male elementary-level EFL learners in the 15-17 age range studying in Soroush English Institute in Rasht, Iran. It indicates that a small size of population, a specific age range, and male gender were considered. Thus, for other researchers, more participants at different proficiency levels, with other ranges of age, and both genders may be considered in order to make broader generalization about the results.
In this paper, the origin of Turkic derivational suffixes is discussed. It was noted that there are various approaches to this case, one of them being the theory of grammaticalization which suggests that Turkic derivational suffixes come from content words, while the other being based on the one-sound morphemic elements that are common to some derivational suffixes. The main one-sound formants in the language of Orkhon Inscriptions that we investigate are the elements -l, -g, and -m. The element -l occurs both in denominal and deverbal words, whereas the formants -g and -m are registered mostly in deverbal nominal words.
The present study compared the effects of reading input flooding and listening input flooding techniques on the accuracy and complexity of Iranian EFL learners’ speaking skill. Participants were 66 homogeneous intermediate EFL learners who were randomly divided into three groups of 22: Reading input flooding group, listening input flooding group, and control group. The reading flooded input group was exposed to the numerous examples of the target structures through reading. In the same phase, the listening group was given relatively the same task, through listening. The participants’ monologues in the posttest were separately recorded, and later transcribed and coded in terms of accuracy and complexity through Bygate’s (2001) standard coding system. The results of ANCOVA indicated the outperformance of reading input flooding group. The study also supported the trade-off effects (Skehan, 1998, 2009) between accuracy and complexity.
Speech presentation, largely a stylistic notion, attracts scholars’ attention from various fields. While narrative theory is devoted to studies on language in fiction and treats speech presentation in close relation with narrator’s distance from the narrative and intervention in the character’s utterance, linguistic perspectives range from categorical classification of speech presentation structures to theoretical exploration into its nature and function. In the meantime stylistics recognizes the compositional and communicative process of speech presentation in narrative and examines linguistic devices by which the narrator orients the reader and creates a text’s style. This paper reviews a number of approaches to speech presentation and the distinctive features of each approach shed light on further stylistic studies on this important discursive phenomenon.
This study investigates the importance of having a set reading instruction method for the development of spelling skills among Czech children ranging in age across the four beginning grades of primary school. 238 children learning to read and spell using an analytical-synthetic method and 251 children learning to read and spell using a genetic method participated in this study. The outcomes of word spelling tests were assessed for the different grade and age levels: first, second- third and fourth. Distributional patterns of spelling skills performance for both instruction method subgroups were created in each of the grade groups. Comparisons of spelling task outputs between both methods were conducted using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results indicate that children using the genetic method are more effective in acquiring phoneme-grapheme correspondences throughout the first grade, and thus show more accurate word spelling in the first grade spelling task. However, this initial advantage for children learning to spell using the genetic method soon disperses, and it is not reflected in better spelling performance throughout the second to third and fourth grade.
In the Czech Republic, the concept of dyslexia is used as a global term for various developmental deficiencies relating to reading skills. The criteria used for dyslexia are not clear and intervention is solely focused on word reading training. Not much is known about the pattern and level of reading comprehension abilities among Czech readers. The study examines reading comprehension and its component skills (decoding and listening comprehension abilities) in 32 Czech fourth-grade children with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia and their classmates (N=126). In decoding tests, the children with dyslexia surprisingly lagged behind most significantly in a task concerning speed and accuracy in context reading. Contrary to expectations, the children with dyslexia also showed inferiority in a listening comprehension task. In reading comprehension measures, in comparison to the typically developing readers, the children with dyslexia achieved the best results in a oral reading comprehension task. The results are discussed with respect to Czech counselling and educational practice and the need for changes in the current support system and terminology is stressed.
Currently various industries using translation services stress the necessity of analytical, critical and practical knowledge of 2 foreign languages, substantial skills of translation technologies, as well as transferable skills for professional translator performance. A changing translator profile causes a shift in translation study programmes towards the development of transferable skills along with translation-related skills. Therefore, the paper focuses on employers’ expectations in relation to the abilities and skills of professionally trained translators. The outcomes of this study reflect the overall situation in the country, still undergoing significant changes in the translation-related industry from the perspective of employers who agree that together with translation-related skills graduates of translation programmes should possess a range of transferable skills, which empower them to act professionally in a changing environment.
This paper explored the value of learner’s stories for ESL (English as a Second Language) teachers’ teaching and research through a narrative inquiry of the lived English learning experience of a first generation Canadian immigrant. It first reviewed the concept of narrative and the significance of launching narrative inquiry. Then, it presented an interview conducted with the Canadian immigrant as a model of narrative inquiry. Themes of the narrative interview were found to resonate with theoretical issues of SLE (Second Language Education), ESL and SLA (Second Language Acquisition). Considering the themes and the entire interviewing process, this paper closed with a discussion of the benefits of narrative inquiry for ESL teachers’ teaching and research.