The aim of this study is to present a Lyapunov function which can be used to derive an intact stability criterion for a ship in random beam seas. First, the mathematical model of the rolling motion of ships in random beam seas is introduced. The random wave excitation is described by a spectrum which is depended on the wave energy spectrum and the amplitude of the moment of roll. This spectrum is generated by a second order linear filter. Second, the methodology of creating a Lyapunov function is explained briefly. Then, there is outlined the way by which Lyapunov function can be used as the intact stability criterion for a ship. The proposed criterion is derived by considering the weather criteria for German naval vessels. Finally, the coherence of the boundary of safe basin obtained by Lyapunov function with the numerical results obtained by Euler-Maruyama Method is presented. From the results it can be deduced that the Lyapunov function can be used to define an intact stability criterion.
The study of aquatic vegetation in the littoral of the dimictic water bodies of taiga is of particular interest in case of long-term observations carried out under conditions of climate fluctuations. During the low-water period, drying of the littoral with a decrease in the water level leads to the changes in phytomass of macrophytes, as well as in the composition of species and their distribution by depth. The area of littoral covered with ice in winter is also large in the low-water period; it affects the growth of perennial plants. When the water level decreases, the sand beach replaces the sand and pebble beach; it leads to the disappearance of epilithon and the predominance of rooting plants. The features of vegetation were determined for each period of water content. The low-water period is characterised mostly by grass-type vegetation; the high-water period is characterised by vegetation of mixed type.
This paper presents a new robust Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm for trajectory tracking of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) in presence of the time-varying external disturbances including winds, waves and ocean currents as well as dynamical uncertainties. For fulfilling the robustness property, a sliding mode control-based procedure for designing of MPC and a super-twisting term are adopted. The MPC algorithm has been known as an effective approach for the implementation simplicity and its fast dynamic response. The proposed hybrid controller has been implemented in MATLAB / Simulink environment. The results for the combined Model Predictive Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control (MP-STSMC) algorithm have shown that it significantly outperforms conventional MPC algorithm in terms of the transient response, robustness and steady state response and presents an effective chattering attenuation in comparison with the Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control (STSMC) algorithm.
For several decades, forest management policies have encouraged land cover changes, with the establishment of tree cover such as Aleppo pine in natural or degraded ecosystems for soil protection and the firewood production. In order to investigate the importance of Aleppo pine trees in the ecosystem, this study was conducted in the reforestation of the Aleppo pine of Northeastern Tunisia. The production of wood, cones and seeds of Aleppo pine in the 6 date reforestation in Northeastern Tunisia were surveyed using 6 plots (20 tree/plot) spread over 6 different location. Our hypothesis was to determine the characteristics that can be decisive in estimating the production of Aleppo pine in reforestation in Tunisia using terrestrial and spatial measurements including (i) age, (ii) dendrometric characteristics, (iii) silvicultural treatments, (iv) stationary data and/ or (v) remote sensing parameter (NDVI: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). We found that the Aleppo pine in Northeastern Tunisia and at young age trees (14–35 years) were more productive than the regeneration or reforestation stand, either young or old, in Northwest of Tunisia. Wood, cone and seed productions were significantly different amongst the plots (p <0.05). The NDVI was positively correlated with the production of wood, cones and seeds. Stand age, exposure and longitude were also positively correlated with the production. However, longitude and altitude were negatively correlated with the production, showing a negative effect on the morphological traits of trees and, subsequently, their growth. The regression analysis indicates that NDVI and age were the most determinant factors of seed production. This research suggests that reforestation planning, particularly the choice of altitude and latitude, may result in improved tree morphology that may increase Aleppo pine wood seed and cone crops.
Diverse chernozemic soils featured by thick mollic horizon, rich in humus, dark-coloured, structural, and saturated with base cations are relatively common in the loess-belt of SW Poland. It is postulated, that most of these soils may have similar initial (chernozemic) history of thick humus horizon, related to climate conditions and vegetation in the Late Pleistocene and the Neolithic periods. However, these soils exist on various bedrocks and under different moisture conditions that led to the development accompanying features and variable classification of soils, both in Polish and international soil classifications. The aim of the paper is to presents the most important variants of loess-derived chernozemic soils of SW Poland, in relation to local conditions, which influenced soil transformation and present spatial diversification. ‘Typical’ chernozems (WRB: Calcic Chernozems), which have a mollic horizon and secondary carbonates, but are free of strong redoximorphic features, are rather uncommon in the region. Whereas, the black earths (WRB: Gleyic/Stagnic Chernozems/Phaeozems), featured by the presence of mollic horizon and strong gleyic or stagnic properties in the middle and bottom parts of the profiles, are predominant loess-derived chernozemic soils in SW Poland. Their most specific forms, developed on the clayey bedrock, are black earths with a vertic horizon (WRB: Vertic Stagnic Phaeozems). The strongly leached chernozemic soils developed over permeable subsoils, lacking carbonates and free of (strongly developed) stagnic/gleyic properties are called grey soils, often featured by the presence of subsurface diagnostic horizons cambic or luvic (WRB: Cambic/Luvic Phaeozems).
The longitudinal motion characteristics of a slender trimaran equipped with and without a T-foil near the bow are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. Computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) method is used in this study. The seakeeping characteristics such as heave, pitch and vertical acceleration in head regular waves are analyzed in various wave conditions. Numerical simulations have been validated by comparisons with experimental tests. The influence of large wave amplitudes and size of T-foil on the longitudinal motion of trimaran are analyzed. The present systematic study demonstrates that the numerical results are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The research implied that the longitudinal motion response values are greatly reduced with the use of T-foil.
On inland waterways the ship resistance and propulsive characteristics are strictly related to the depth of the waterway, thus it is important to have an understanding of the influence of water depth on ship hydrodynamic characteristics. Therefore, accurate predictions of hydrodynamic forces in restricted waterways are required and important. The aim of this paper is investigating the capability of the commercial unsteady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) solver to predict the influence of water depth on ship resistance. The volume of fluid method (VOF) is applied to simulate the free surface flow around the ship. The hull resistance in shallow and deep water is compared. The obtained numerical results are validated against related experimental studies available in the literature.
Modern solutions used in compression-ignition internal combustion engines are quite similar to each other. The use of high-pressure, direct fuel injection results in high combustion rates with controlled exhaust emissions. One of the combustion system quality criteria is to obtain adequately high thermodynamic indicators of the combustion process, which are obtained through, among others, the right combustion chamber geometry. Its shape influences the fuel atomization process, turbulence of fuel dose, evaporation and the combustion process. Optimizing the combustion chamber shape is one of the decisive factors proving the correct execution of the combustion process. This article presents the methodology of choosing the combustion chamber shape (changes of three selected combustion chamber dimensions) by using the optimization methods. Generating multidimensional data while maintaining the correlation structure was performed by using the Latin hypercube method. Chamber optimization was carried out by using the Nelder-Mead method. The combustion chamber shape was optimized for three engine load values (determined by the average indicated pressure) at selected engine operating conditions. The presented method of engine combustion chamber optimization can be used in low and high speed diesel propulsion engines (especially in maritime transport applications).
The issue of calculating parameters for lifting objects of axisymmetric shapes from the seabed is studied. The article presents the results of numerical simulation examination of the equation formulated by Foda for the force needed to extricate the object from the seabed depending on soil and water parameters, extrication speed, and object diameter. The simulations were performed within the range of parameters characteristic for real applications, and their results were used for deriving approximate algebraic formulas applicable in engineering practice of lifting objects resting on seabed.
This study deals with a new concept of near-shore combined renewable energy system which integrates a monopile wind turbine and a floating buoy with heave-type wave energy converter( WEC). Wave energy is absorbed by power-take-off (PTO) systems. Four different shapes of buoy model are selected for this study. Power performance in regular waves is calculated by using boundary element method in ANSYS-AQWA software in both time and frequency domains. This software is based on three-dimensional radiation/diffraction theory and Morison’s equation using mixture of panels and Morison elements for determining hydrodynamic loads. For validation of the approach the numerical results of the main dynamic responses of WEC in regular wave are compared with the available experimental data. The effects of the heaving buoy geometry on the main dynamic responses such as added mass, damping coefficient, heave motion, PTO damping force and mean power of various model shapes of WEC in regular waves with different periods, are compared and discussed. Comparison of the results showed that using WECs with a curvature inward in the bottom would absorb more energy from sea waves.