Lower Jurassic ammonites were collected from deep-water limestones of the Tannscharten section, southwest of Reichraming (Northern Calcareous Alps, Upper Austria). The outcrop provides a rich Upper Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) ammonite fauna of the Allgäu Formation. The area is situated in the westernmost part of the Schneeberg Syncline in the north of the Reichraming Nappe (High Bajuvaric Unit). The ammonite fauna consists of seven different genera, each apparently represented by 1-2 species. Echioceratids are the most frequent components (Echioceras, Leptechioceras, Paltechioceras), followed by the phylloceratids (Juraphyllites, Partschiceras) and oxynoticeratids (Gleviceras, Paroxynoticeras). Juraphyllites libertus, Partschiceras striatocostatum, Gleviceras paniceum, Echioceras quenstedti, Echioceras raricostatoides, Paltechioceras boehmi, Leptechioceras meigeni, Leptechioceras macdonnelli and Paltechioceras oosteri are new for the Schneeberg Syncline and allow for the first time a detailed biostratigraphy of the Echioceras raricostatum zone. The assemblage is correlated with other faunae from Austria, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Switzerland and Romania. The cephalopod fauna consists of a mix of elements from the Northwest European Province and the Mediterranean Province. The detailed biostratigraphy based on ammonites is presented here.
Geophysical and geotechnical techniques were used to investigate the sub-surface information of a proposed site for a hostel construction at Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Ten vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations were adopted. Typical sounding curves obtained include the HA, KH, AKH and KQH types, of which the AKH-type consists of 40% of the survey points, and a maximum of five geo-electric sub-surface layers were delineated. Laboratory analyses were performed to investigate particle size distribution, Atterberg limit, compaction limit, California bearing ratio (CBR) and specific gravity. The CBR revealed that all soil samples, except L4, are mechanically stable and have high load-bearing capacity. The Atterberg limit test and the geo-electric section showed that the second layer of VES 4 is composed of sandy clay with high plastic index and low liquid limit, which may pose a threat to the foundation of any engineering structure. VES locations 5, 6 and 8 were identified as high groundwater potential zones suitable for optimum groundwater abstraction. The study area is suitable for both shallow and deep foundations, however VES 4 and VES 5 require reinforcement.
The Qorveh-Takab travertines, which are connected to thermal springs, are situated in the northwest of the Sanandaj- Sirjan metamorphic zone in Iran. In this study, the travertines were investigated applying petrography, mineralogy and isotope geochemistry. Oxygen and carbon isotope geochemistry, petrography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis were used to determine the source of the CO2 and the lithofacies and to classify the travertines. Isotope studies, morphological and mineralogical observations and distribution of travertines revealed that the travertines of the Qorveh-Takab could be of thermal water origin and, therefore, belong to the thermogene travertine category. These travertines are usually massive with mound-type morphology and are essentially found in regions with recent volcanic or high tectonic activity. The measured δ13C values of the travertines indicate that the δ13C of the CO2 released from the water during travertine deposition, while the source of the CO2 in the water springs seems to have been of crustal magmatic affinity. These travertines are divided into two lithofacies: (1) crystalline crust travertine and (2) pebbly (phytoclastic travertine with pebble- size extraclasts) travertine. δ18O and δ13C values of travertines are -0.6 to -11.9 (‰VPDB) and +6.08 to +9.84 (‰VPDB), respectively. A probable reason for the heavy carbon isotope content observed in these deposits is the presence of algae microorganisms, which was verified by SEM images. Fissure ridges, fluvial crusts with oncoids, and mound morphological features are observed in the study area. Based on the petrographic and SEM criteria, Qorveh-Takab travertines are classified into four groups: (1) compacted, (2) laminated, (3) iron-rich spring deposit and (4) aragonite-bearing travertines. Stable isotope compositions of Turkish travertines are largely similar to the travertines in the study area.
The study area in the West Junggar Basin is known to be rich in hydrothermal gold deposits and occurrences, even though there has been minimum exploration in the area. It is here hypothesised that this area could host more gold deposits if mineral exploration methods were to be reinforced. This research is aimed at identifying geochemical anomalies of Au, and determining possible factors and conditions which facilitate the formation of anomalies by referring to As and Hg as gold pathfinders. Geostatistical analyst techniques have been applied to 9,852 stream sediments and bedrock data collected on a total surface of 1,280 km2 of West Junggar, Xinjiang (northwest China). The kriging interpolation and quantile-quantile plot methods, combined with statistical methods, successfully identified both Au and its pathfinders’ anomalies. In the present study, median was considered as background values (10.2 ppm for As, 9.13 ppb for Hg and 2.5 ppb for Au), whereas the 95th percentile were threshold values (28.03 ppm for As, 16.71 ppb for Hg and 8.2 ppb for Au) and values greater than thresholds are geochemical anomalies. Moreover, the high concentrations of these three discovered elements are caused primarily by hydrothermal ore mineralisation and are found to be controlled mainly by the Hatu and Sartohay faults of a northeast-southwesterly direction as well as their related secondary faults of variable orientation, which facilitate the easy flow of hydrothermal fluids towards the surface resulting in the formation of geochemical anomalies. Most of anomalies concentration of Au are found near the mining sites, which indicates that the formation of new Au anomalies is influenced by current or previous mining sites through geological or weathering processes. In addition, the low concentration of gold and its pathfinders found far from active gold mine or faults indicates that those anomalies are formed due to primary dispersion of hosting rock.
Miocene deposits in the eastern portion of the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts contain well-developed brackish-water trace fossil assemblages. Twelve ichnogenera have been identified, namely: Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, Gyrolithes, Thalassinoides, Lockeia, Palaeophycus, ?Conichnus, Planolites, Siphonichnus, Skolithos and Diplocraterion. In addition, common non-descript, passively filled burrows and fugichnia (escape structures) have also been observed. The above-mentioned ichnogenera and associated non-descript structures can be arranged into six distinct and recurring ichnoassociations within the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts. Each ichnoassociation is comprised of a group of trace fossils which collectively reflect specific environmental conditions during deposition of these Miocene strata. All trace fossil assemblages illustrate deposition in nearshore, restricted settings. Ichnological and sedimentological criteria which may be utilized to recognise brackish-water deposits are discussed and illustrated in pictures of the cores studied.
Ancient deltaic facies are difficult to differentiate from tidally influenced shallow-marine facies. The Wagad Sandstone Formation of the Wagad Highland (eastern Kachchh Basin) is typified by offshore and deltaic facies with sedimentary characteristics that represent different conditions of hydrodynamics and related depositional processes. The study area, the Adhoi Anticline, constitutes a ~154-m-thick, shale-dominated sequence with progressive upward intercalations of bioturbated micritic sandstone and quartz arenite. Two thick Astarte beds (sandy allochemic limestone), with an erosional base and gravel blanketing, illustrate tidal amplification and high-energy stochastic events such as storms. Sedimentological characteristics document three depositional facies: an offshore, shale-dominated sequence prograding to proximal prodeltaic micritic sandstone and quartz arenite with sandy allochemic limestones, further prograding to mouth bars and abandoned channel deposits. The Wagad Sandstone Formation displays depositional environmental conditions that are dissimilar from those of coeval deposits in Kachchh sub-basins as well as on regional and global scales. This is attributed to a reactivation of the Kachchh Mainland and South Wagad faults which resulted in detachment and uplift of the Wagad block which then experienced prograding deltaic conditions.
Loessification is a process by which a body of non-loess ground is transformed into a body of loess ground. The history of loessification is one of controversy and confrontation, largely because of mutual misunderstandings between geologists and pedologists. Lev S. Berg is the ‘only begetter’ of the theory, first proposed in 1916, and propagated throughout his life. R.J. Russell proposed the same approach to the loess in the Lower Mississippi valley in his famous 1944 paper, which contributed enormously to the study of loess in North America. As understanding of the various processes involved in the formation of loess deposits has developed, a compromise position on loess formation has become possible. The major intrinsic features of loess deposits are the open structure and the collapsibility. It appears that the open structure is caused by aeolian depositional processes and the collapsibility is caused by loessification processes. The compromise was initiated by Marton Pécsi in 1990, He endeavoured to retain a loessification aspect in the study of loess deposits, as the subject appeared to be overwhelmed by the aeolian idea system promoted by geologists; it has been mostly a Central European endeavour. The history of the concept of loessification largely involves (1) its development in Russia, (2) its dissemination and discussion – and attempts at refutation and modification – in the wider world.
Information on Jurassic palynomorphs from the Greater Caucasus is potentially of great importance, but its availability to the international research community is severely limited. New palynological data for Toarcian deposits of the Western Caucasus are recorded in the present paper. Particularly, dinoflagellate cysts are described for the first time from the Bagovskaja Formation; palynomorphs are found in sandstone levels within this unit. The most representative assemblage includes pollen (with predominant bisaccate pollen), spores (Cyathidites being commonest), and dinoflagellate cysts amongst which the predominant taxon is Nannoceratopsis spiculata. The dinocyst assemblage implies a late Toarcian age for the upper part of the Bagovskaja Formation. On the basis of these new palynostratigraphical results, the range of the formation is extended; previously, only the lower part had been dated on ammonite evidence.