The aim of the paper it to assess the “catalytic effect” of IMF lending programs on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European (CESEE) countries during and after the latest global financial crisis. This paper provides new empirical evidence on this catalytic effect while controlling for banking stability. Our results show that IMF lending programs had a negative catalytic effect on FDI flows to emerging economies from CESEE over the period 1999-2013. Other key determinants of FDI flows to these countries are inflation, current account balance, level of education, and infrastructure.
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of initial public offerings (IPOs) in the emerging markets with particular focus on the markets of Balkan countries. The paper provides analysis of long and short performance of IPOs. In the Balkan emerging markets IPOs are relatively rarely used. Although all observed Balkan countries have gone through processes of transition from planned economies to market economies in the past 25 years, just a few state-owned companies have been privatized by use of IPOs. Due to this specific nature of the companies the analyzed sample of IPOs is comprised of state-owned and non-state-owned companies. The results are interpreted and expounded accordingly, taking into consideration the aforementioned conjunction. The findings indicate that company characteristics, signalling variables and financial variables have influence on the IPOs short and long term performance. The paper provides academia and policymakers with new revelations concerning the IPO processes in Balkan emerging economies’ capital markets.
In financial markets, transparency of financial information is one of the most effective variables of investment strategies. Information asymmetry can seriously affect firm performance on the stock exchange and firms with a poor informational environment can lose the interest of investors. Reducing information asymmetry can have an important effect on firm performance on the stock exchange. Firms may lack a clear informational environment in the market because of the emerging conditions governing the Tehran Stock Exchange. Because larger and more active firms on the Tehran Stock Exchange provide more information, measuring the informational environment of these firms provides an overview of information asymmetry. The present study calculated the information asymmetry in these firms using the PIN and FE indices. The inconsistent results provided by these indices prompted the authors to offer a new index that is a composite of the PIN and FE that can better explain information asymmetry in developing market such as Asian stock markets. The results show that the new composite index, by using the mechanisms of the PIN and FE indices, provides a better outcome. The new composite index shows that the Tosee Melli Inv (TMEL1), Mobarakeh Steel (FOLD1), Iran Mobil Tele (HMRZ1), Saipa (SIPA1) and I.N.C. Ind. (MSMI1) firms have a better informational environment on the Tehran Stock Exchange.
We focus on 32 Croatian banks in the period 2002-2010 in order to investigate the solvency-liquidity nexus. Dynamic panel data analysis is applied on two basic models in which current liquidity ratio and equity to assets ratio are set as dependent variables, interchangeably, and other explanatory variables employed to capture the effect of bank size, profitability and asset quality as well as macroeconomic environment. We found two-way positive relationship between bank solvency and liquidity. However, bank size plays an important role in the capital and liquidity management, and trade-off between the solvency and liquidity level is found for the larger banks. Therefore, policymakers should take into consideration capital and liquidity interdependence, as well as the bank size effect when designing capital and liquidity requirements in order to downsize the regulatory burden for smaller banks, and increase them for larger banks. Namely, larger banks tend to minimize regulatory costs by avoiding simultaneous increase of liquidity and solvency. Small banks do exactly the opposite and stock both, capital and liquidity, what potentially makes their funds allocation sub-optimal, from their own as well as social point of view. Altogether, the paper contributes to scarce empirical evidence regarding bank solvency and liquidity interdependence, particularly when the post-transitional banking sectors are taken into consideration. It adds to knowledge on bank financial management in praxis, and bank managers and prudential authorities might find it relevant for their policies design and implementation.
In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs) that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.
The aim of this paper is two-fold; first, it studies the impact of the credibility of fiscal rule policy on the stability of output growth; second, it compares the effectiveness of fiscal rule policy to discretionary and automatic stabilizer fiscal policies to address the fluctuation of output growth. Employing quarterly data over the period 2001-2013 in the case of Indonesia, we obtain that the credible debt rule leads to a decrease in the volatility of output growth while the non-credible deficit rule does not have any effect. Both unsystematic and systematic components of discretionary fiscal policy have a stabilizing function. Interestingly, the automatic stabilization tends to induce the volatility of output growth. Given those results, we infer that government spending is not a good automatic stabilizer. It seems that the lower ratio of government expenditure to GDP along with improving credibility of deficit rule policy has a smoother effect on the economy. Therefore, they implicitly support expenditure cuts when implementing fiscal adjustment with the purpose of reaching fiscal sustainability in the short-run and a stable economic growth in the long-run.
Unconventional marketing has the potential to contribute not only to the well-being of cultural institutions but also to the society by raising its general cultural level and fostering economic growth based on creative industries. This paper contributes to the theoretical explanation and understanding of the unconventional marketing approach by providing an overview of literature, a developed model of successful marketing in cultural institutions and an analysis of the objectives of such marketing. Based on empirical research on cultural institutions in the Republic of Croatia, the research objective was to contribute to identifying and understanding the factors that influence unconventional marketing as well as the potential for applying unconventional marketing in cultural institutions. Research was limited to three types of cultural institutions (theatres, museums and galleries) and it was conducted on a sample of 244 institutions by using a highly structured online questionnaire.
Financial sector has experienced significant expansion together with accelerating financial globalization in recent years and had important positive and negative economic implications for all the economies. This study investigates the interaction among unemployment, financial development and domestic investment in 16 emerging market economies during 2001-2014 period using panel data analysis. We found that there was long relationship among the variables and domestic investment had negative impact on the unemployment, while financial development had no significant impact on the unemployment. Furthermore, there was unidirectional causality from development of financial sector to unemployment.
The paper is intended to study the effects of total government spending and tax revenue on the annual GDP growth rate in Albania. On this base, we can examine whether and to which extent the macroeconomic governance could rely on those fiscal instruments in terms of a small open economy. The empirical methodology is based on regression analysis which includes OLS estimation on simply specified regression model and Vector Autoregressive estimates. The results support the assumptions that government expenditure is a weak instrument for policy impacts and the government must rely on taxation to stimulate economic growth.
In the context of political, social and economic global worries, tourism remains an underexploited option as its ability to be a consistent revenues source in Romania. Some companies have understood this and thus they have successfully developed their activities by building their business in a strategic way. In the same way, others failed due to lack of vision and coherence. The strategic thinking capacity, that has led them to success, has been reflected specially in their human resources strategies - positive effects generator on long term. What do they mean and what do these strategies consist of? The main purpose of this article consists in the analysis of information both from the online environment and literature reviews referring to this subject. It also aims to provide best practices and recommendations for a strategic approach of human resources in tourism companies, having in mind an area whose future must to be considered.