This study assessed the physico-chemical status of sediments in the Agbede Wetlands with the aim to create a reference archive for the Edo North catchment and to further identify the characteristics mostly influenced by the natural and anthropogenic activities going on at the watershed. Nutrients, zinc, nickel and lead were identified to be mostly of anthropogenic origin, while alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The clustering of stations 1 and 4 indicates that the sediment quality in the lentic systems was not completely excluded from the lotic system, suggesting that principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) techniques are invaluable tools for identifying factors influencing the sediment quality. The mean values of the particle size distribution were in the following order across the ecosystems: sand (61.86-80.53%) > silt (9.75-30.34%) > clay (7.83-13.89%). The contamination of the water bodies was primarily derived from agricultural run-offs and through geochemical weathering of the top soils. Therefore, our analysis indicates that the concentrations of cations, anions and nutrients in the sediments of the lotic and lentic ecosystems in Agbede Wetlands are not at an alarming level.
Geochemical analysis of fluvial sediments on the banks of River Ero using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry illustrates their maturity, provenance and tectonic setting. The analysed sediment samples show low SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 2.92-2.99 (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E) and high SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 4.064-4.852 (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G). Sediments were geochemically classified as shales (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E) and greywackes (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G). Variability in sediment maturity (FL_F > FL_G >FL_C >FL_D >FL_A > FL_B > FL_E) parallels a decreasing order in the ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3, as well as the proportion of quartz grains and matrix components. Evidence from Al2O3/TiO2, K2O, Rb, La/Co, Th/Co, Cr/ Th, Th/Cr, La/Th-Hf, Th-Hf-Co and rare earth element contents of sediment samples suggest felsic protoliths of upper continental crust in a passive margin tectonic setting. An insignificant contribution of mafic components from the source is, however, inferred based on the Ni and Cr contents of the sediment samples. Combined Eu anomalies <0.85 and (Gd/Yb)n ratios <2.0 (1.53- 1.82, average 1.65) suggest post-Archean protoliths.
In this study, conditional average estimator neural networks (CAE NNs) were used for an analysis of the common influences of the cooling mode in relation to the ram speed, extrusion ratio, casting speed and casting temperature on the yield strength and the elongation of an extruded profile made from aluminium alloy (AA)6082. The obtained results from the analysis revealed very complex relationships between these parameters. In order to maximise the values for the yield strength and the elongation, the values for the ram speed, extrusion ratio, casting speed and casting temperature should be optimised in relation to the mode of cooling.
In Slovenia, there is widespread use of structural drilling along with classical core drilling. Recently, however, the need has arisen for a highly effective core drilling method with the aid of which high-quality core might be obtained. In order to achieve this aim, one among several Slovenian companies dealing with geological surveying has decided to implement structural drilling using a high-frequency drilling method. The following article presents the theoretical foundations for such a high-frequency method, as well as the manner of its implementation. In the final part of the article, a practical comparison between the conventional and the high-frequency core drilling methods is also provided.
Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used to determine the position of receiver antenna without communication with the reference station. It may be an alternative solution to differential measurements, where maintaining a connection with a single RTK station or a regional network of reference stations RTN is necessary. This situation is especially common in areas with poorly developed infrastructure of ground stations. A lot of research conducted so far on the use of the PPP technique has been concerned about the development of entire day observation sessions. However, this paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of accuracy of absolute determination of position from observations which last between 1 to 7 hours with the use of four permanent services which execute calculations with PPP technique such as: Automatic Precise Positioning Service (APPS), Canadian Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP), GNSS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS) and magicPPP - Precise Point Positioning Solution (magicGNSS). On the basis of acquired results of measurements, it can be concluded that at least two-hour long measurements allow acquiring an absolute position with an accuracy of 2-4 cm. An evaluation of the impact on the accuracy of simultaneous positioning of three points test network on the change of the horizontal distance and the relative height difference between measured triangle vertices was also conducted. Distances and relative height differences between points of the triangular test network measured with a laser station Leica TDRA6000 were adopted as references. The analyses of results show that at least two hours long measurement sessions can be used to determine the horizontal distance or the difference in height with an accuracy of 1-2 cm. Rapid products employed in calculations conducted with PPP technique reached the accuracy of determining coordinates on a close level as in elaborations which employ Final products.
The study raises the issues concerning the automatic system designed for the monitoring of movement of controlled points, located on the roof covering of the Forest Opera in Sopot. It presents the calculation algorithm proposed by authors. It takes into account the specific design and location of the test object. High forest stand makes it difficult to use distant reference points. Hence the reference points used to study the stability of the measuring position are located on the ground elements of the sixmeter-deep concrete foundations, from which the steel arches are derived to support the roof covering (membrane) of the Forest Opera. The tacheometer used in the measurements is located in the glass body placed on a special platform attached to the steel arcs. Measurements of horizontal directions, vertical angles and distances can be additionally subject to errors caused by the laser beam penetration through the glass. Dynamic changes of weather conditions, including the temperature and pressure also have a significant impact on the value of measurement errors, and thus the accuracy of the final determinations represented by the relevant covariance matrices. The estimated coordinates of the reference points, controlled points and tacheometer along with the corresponding covariance matrices obtained from the calculations in the various epochs are used to determine the significance of acquired movements. In case of the stability of reference points, the algorithm assumes the ability to study changes in the position of tacheometer in time, on the basis of measurements performed on these points.
The GNSS data evaluated from on observation of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas is analyzed by the author in the scope of disturbances in daily solutions that can be induced by tectonics stress. The daily position changes derived from GNSS data demonstrate the long or short term trends, which are affected by offsets of different nature. Author presents an analysis based on frequency of parameter – displacement vector azimuth. The aim of the analysis is to show statistical significance of observed small values of temporal displacements, which values are not normally distributed. There are “outliers” of the normal distribution of displacement azimuths, which values show a certain reproducibility, which corresponds to orientations of tectonic lines. That suggests small, short time movements along boundaries of horsts and grabens – a crustal-extension structure of the area. However derived results (values of displacements) are less than a limitation error, temporal distributions of coordinates are not random as usually data errors. So in author’s opinion the spatial-temporal evolution of horizontal displacements of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas are determined by expressions of underlying geological structures.
The aim of this paper is to present the need for changes of geodetic-legal procedures for the cadastre and real estate management. This problem was analyzed both in theoretical and practical terms. In order to better present the analyzed technical and legal procedures, a study of several cases of surveying documentation was made. On their example the problems associated with the surveying services were shows and the formal and legal procedures, on the basis of which described surveying works were done were verified. The problem presented is current and valid not only for the comfort of the surveyor's work, but also from the point of view of the structure and modernization of the real estate cadastre, constituting the backbone of the real estate management. The article emphasized the need to unify the databases of state registers and the digitization of the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resources (PZDGiK). Research has shown that despite the continuous changes of legislation, there are still many shortcomings and gaps, which often complicate the surveying works. The surveyor must analyze and verify all materials he uses, including those obtained from the Centre of Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation (ODGiK). The quality of the geodetic and cartographic elaboration depends largely on the work of the Centre of Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation. The need of modernization of the Land and Buildings Registry, which acts as a cadastre in Poland, has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the unification of data used as reference systems both for plane coordinates and elevation has been proposed.
The new solution for the Polish geodetic primary GNSS network was created to verify the currently used reference frame (PL-ETRF2000). The new solution is based on more GNSS data (more daily observation sessions included, a longer data timespan, GLONASS observations added) which were processed in a newer reference frame (IGb08) according to up-to-date methodology and using the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software. The new long-term solution (spanning 3.7 years) was aligned to the IGb08 reference frame using a minimum constraints approach. We categorized Polish reference stations into two categories according to their data length. We obtained good agreement of the new solution with the PL-ETRF2000: for most stations position differences did not exceed 5 mm in horizontal, and 10 mm in vertical components. However, for 30 stations we observed discontinuities in position time series, mostly due to GNSS equipment changes, which occured after the introduction of PL-ETRF2000. Position changes due to the discontinuities reached 9.1 mm in horizontal components, and 26.9 mm in vertical components. The new solution takes into account position discontinuities, and in addition also includes six new stations which were installed after the introduction of the PL-ETRF2000. Therefore, we propose to update the currently-used reference frame for the Polish geodetic primary network (PL-ETRF2000) with the new solution. The new solution was also accepted by the EUREF Technical Working Group as a class A solution (highest accuracy) according to EUREF standards.
Very low frequency (VLF) was used to assess variations in overburden composition, bedrock lithology and the concealed basement structures within the bedrock of Owena Dam in Igbara-Oke of the Precambrian Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria. Five VLF-electromagnetic (EM) traverses were occupied at 5 m intervals. The VLF normal and filtered real component anomalies identify major geological interfaces suspected to be faults/fractured zones. The points of crossover between the real and imaginary components delineate the fractured zones, which were identified as areas of possible seepage (piping and sloughing). The internal erosion (permeability) of soil mass eventually leads to the formation of an open conduit in the soil, which may lead to failure of the embankment/dam. The fractured zones are suspected to be present at all traverses. In total, 21 fractured zones were identified along the dam embankment, with the deepest occurrence at Traverse 5. These seepage zones cause heterogeneity in the subsurface composition, which could lead to dam failure. The result of the study suggests that VLF is an adequate method of monitoring seepages in embankment dams.