Testing microbial quality of the harvested rainwater remains a challenge in many countries. The H2S test kit is a low-cost microbiological field-based test which can be used in areas where water testing facilities are limited. This study compares its efficiency with the standard indicators microorganisms in the detection of faecal contamination of rainwater in South Africa. A total of 88 rainwater samples were collected from various tanks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa over three months in 2016. The collected samples were analysed for faecal bacterial contamination using the H2S test kit, Colilert-18/Quanti-tray®/2000 and the membrane filtration technique for faecal coliforms (MFT). The correspondence rate of the H2S test kit with MFT was 88 %, while for the Colilert® it was 76 %. The H2S test kit confirmed faecal contamination when concentrations of standards indicators microorganisms were 5 most-probable number of cells/100 cm3 or higher. Overall, the best correspondence of the H2S test kit with Colilert® was observed at E. coli concentrations above 50 most-probable number of cells/100 cm3. Results of the H2S test kit correlated better with MTF, while the medium used has strongly influenced the enumeration of faecal contamination. Results point to strong effect of media used and revealed the need to calibrate the correspondence between the standard indicator microorganisms and the H2S test kit under local conditions for specific settings.
Morpholine is an interesting moiety that used widely in several organic syntheses. The intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) complexity associated between morpholine (Morp) donor with (monoiodobromide “IBr”, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone “DDQ”, 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide “DCQ” and 2,6-dibromoquinone-4-chloroimide “DBQ”) π–acceptors have been spectrophotometrically investigated in CHCl3 and/or MeOH solvents. The structures of the intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) were elucidated by spectroscopic methods like, infrared spectroscopy. Also, different analyses techniques such as UV-Vis and elemental analyses were performed to characterize the four morpholine [(Morp)(IBr)], [(Morp)(DDQ)], [(Morp)(DCQ)] and [(Morp)(DBQ)] CT-complexes which reveals that the stoichiometry of the reactions is 1:1. The modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation was utilized to determine the physical spectroscopic parameters such as association constant (K) and the molar extinction coefficient (ε).
Energy drink (ED) consumption, even mixed with alcohol, is popular among adolescents and young adults. The side effects of ED are attributed to their active ingredients and their cumulated effect. A cross-sectional study to identify university students’ ED consumption habit was realized. A small sample size (n = 10) experiment examining the effect of ED consumption on arterial blood pressure and heart rate was carried out.
From the total number of 240 interviewed students, 87.1% consumed ED at least once, and one third of them did so on a monthly basis. Students consume energy drinks mainly for its taste, very rarely for studying. Differences in consumption place preferences were observed between sexes, females preferring bars, while males the dormitory. We have demonstrated the increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP) for one type of energy drink in young and healthy volunteer students. Other changes in blood pressure and heart rate were not observed.
The enthalpy of isopropanol adsorption on ZSM-5 (Zeolite Socony Mobil Framework Type MFI) was determined by the static adsorption method at the temperature range from 20°C to 100°C. Langmuir and Huttig models of equilibrium adsorption have been used to calculate the enthalpy of isopropanol adsorption at these conditions. Adsorption isotherms determined by the flow method at 20°C and 30°C have been also used in the calculations. The obtained values of isopropanol adsorption enthalpy were compared with the values of isopropanol evaporation enthalpy and with the results obtained from isopropanol and water desorption measurements with thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry methods.
New kind of adsorbent was produced from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim shell. The KOH activation technology for preparation of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim shell activated carbon (TKMCK) was optimized. Using methylene blue as the sample adsorbate, the adsorption behavior was systematically investigated in terms of the activation agent and temperature, the adsorption temperature and time, the initial adsorbate pH and concentration, as well as the dosage of adsorbent. Surface physical morphology of the TKMCK prepared was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the functional groups were determined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process was more consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to fit the adsorption data at equilibrium, with the former giving a maximum adsorption capacity of 793.65 mg/g at 323 K. BET surface area of as-prepared TKMCK was 657.78 m2/g.
For achieving a long service life of stamping dies for new types of steel sheets intended for the automotive industry, the tribosystem must be optimally designed. One of the possible solutions is its optimization by coatings. More modern coating technologies for stamping dies include PVD (physical vapor deposition) and CVD (chemical vapor deposition) methods. The properties of PVD TiCN and DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings deposited on ledeburitic high-alloy Cr–Mo–V steel were analyzed by standard tests (coating adhesion by both the scratch and Rockwell C tests, microhardness by Vickers method and coating thickness by Calotest) and developed tribo-meter of the “friction jaw-roller” type at drawing double-sided hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. The obtained results showed better tribological behavior of the DLC coating.
The manufacture of dairy products is an important sector of the food industry. From milking to processing, a number of hygiene rules must be strictly followed. During processing, dairy products can be contaminated with different microorganisms, causing spoilage, infectious diseases, and alterations in the sensory characteristics. There are strict requirements for the quality assurance of milk products. In spite of this, there occur infections linked to milk and dairy product consumption. The analysis of the microbiological quality of these products is a health concern, and it also has an economic impact. The increase and development of the global market of processing technologies require rapid monitoring and controlling systems for food products. In our study, we investigated the microbiological quality of some fresh dairy products with the Soleris® test system. For instrument setting, calibration curves were realized with test bacterial strains. With known initial microbial load of the samples, the microbial growth versus time was measured by the above-mentioned system. The occurrence of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in ten dairy products. Results obtained by the Soleris system showed that the system is efficient for this purpose. Calibration curves with high correlation coefficients permitted the quantitative determination of the aimed bacteria in the dairy product samples.
The aim of this study was to analyse the steam gasification process of ‘Janina’ coal with and without Na-, K- and Ca-catalysts. The catalysts were physically mixed with the coal due to the simplicity of this method, short time of execution and certainty that the amount of catalyst is exactly as the adopted one. The isothermal measurements were performed at 800, 900 and 950°C and a pressure of 1 MPa using thermovolumetric method. The obtained results enabled assessment of the effect of analysed catalysts on the process at various temperatures by determination of: i) carbon conversion degree; ii) yield and composition of the resulting gas; and iii) kinetics of formation reactions of main gas components – CO and H2. The addition of catalysts, as well as an increase in operating temperature, had a positive effect on the coal gasification process – reactions rates increased, and the process time was reduced.
In this paper a new approach to the consistent identification of the deformation pattern vital for the precise determination of the plastic limit load of a cylindrical shell from MNA when using modified Southwell (MS) and Tangent Stiffness (TS) plots is presented. It is proposed that the formalised assessment of the plastic collapse load can be done by the application of the relation between the load factor increment ΔrR and the arc length s – for an identification of achievement of the complete plastic collapse mechanism from MNA, and then the MS or TS plot for the displacement pattern that corresponds to the identified plastic mechanism.
Drug metabolism in liver microsomes was studied in vitro using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relevant drug was incubated with dog, human and rat liver microsomes (DLMs, HLMs, RLMs) along with NADPH, and the reaction mixture was analyzed by LC-MS/MS to obtain specific metabolic profile. GRACE analytical C18 column, Vision HT (50 × 2 mm, 1.5 μm) was implemented with acetonitrile and water (+ 5 mM ammonium acetate) in a gradient mode as the mobile phase at a flow 0.4 mL.min−1. Different phase I and phase II metabolites were detected and structurally described. The metabolism of the studied drugs occurred via oxidation, hydroxylation and oxidative deamination processes. Conjugates with the glucuronic acid and sulfate were also observed as phase II biotransformation. The central composite design (CCD) showed that factors, such as time incubation, liver microsomal enzymes concentration and NADPH concentration, along with drying gas temperature, nebulizer gas pressure and capillary voltage significantly affected the final response of the method. This study describes the novel information about the chemical structure of the potential metabolites of selected biologically active compounds, which provide vital data for further pharmacokinetic and in vivo metabolism studies.