Ever since the Kotler’s promotion-mix concept based on the most traditional model of four pillars - advertising, public relations, sales promotion and direct sales has become commonly known, PR has been treated as one of many, typically marketing, impact tools. This perception is particularly characteristic for the science of marketing management and publication. Meanwhile, it is often forgotten that public relations is the management of communication, which may be used in marketing communication, however it is a much broader meaningful concept, giving greater perspectives of use. This article refers to defining a place of public relations between two asymmetric areas of communication - social and marketing one. Basing on literature analysis, the authors define key factors differentiating both perspectives, they also evaluate the proposals for introducing new concepts into the media and communication terminology, indicating the distinctiveness of both conceptual categories.
This study aims to define Early Formal Education teacher competence in the learning of dance art in kindergarten in Malang. This study uses a descriptive design with quantitative and qualitative approaches. The population is kindergarten teachers in Malang. The sample uses a proportional random sampling technique that amounted to 15 kindergarten teachers from five sub-districts in Malang, each sub-district represented three teachers from different kindergartens. The data collection technique used a questionnaire. The results show that the level of kindergarten teachers’ understanding in Malang of the Early Formal Education teacher’s competence required in the learning of dance art is in a good category; however, contrary to the reality in the field, the problem of early childhood dance learning lies in the lack of pedagogical competence, personality and teacher professionalism. Teaching requires intense and sustained training to improve dance learning competence. The conclusion is that the competence of Early Formal Education teachers in the learning of dance art in kindergarten in Malang is still lacking.
This article discusses an innovative educational experience carried out as part of teaching of the module ‘Technologies of Education’ to third-year students completing the ‘Expert in Social and Cultural Education’ course in the Department of Education Studies at the Bologna and Rimini campuses. The experience examined the use of an online forum as a virtual environment for interactions between students. This experience is based on the hypothesis that significant knowledge can be gained by taking part in learning communities. In particular, this can occur within a deliberately educational digital environment that allows for individual learning to be given a new meaning, thanks to contributions from other participants, which, precisely because of its asynchronous nature, encourages reflective thought. The results are in line with studies that reveal the positive potential of forums: they are shown to be an effective environment for collaborative negotiation and the consolidation of knowledge, as well as for meta-reflection, as they enable topics previously dealt with in the classroom environment to be resumed and reformulated in the context of group discussion.
This article deals with issues related to musical programs such as talent shows. The author focused on the participant’s form examining the changes that took place in their life after taking part in the show. Based on numerous sources and because of the theoretical analysis, the author classified the traits of participants who succeed after the program. In the final part of the following paper, the author categorized are the changes that occur in the life of the program participant.
Hikikomori social withdrawal syndrome was first diagnosed in Japan and means a person who has been isolated from society to an extreme degree. She/he does not attend school or go to work. They do not attend university, they constantly remain at home and most often keep contact with the outside world using new technologies. Hikikomori syndrome is most often recognized as a characteristic problem occurring among Asian societies. Meanwhile, the growing dependence on new technologies among Western societies, and in particular, on the Internet, has caused social withdrawal to become a global problem. Human relationships began to move from the real world to the virtual world, which nowadays is full of communication facilities and allows people to establish relationships with other people without leaving their homes with the help of social media, which are currently packed with advanced solutions connecting people of similar interests or views. All this means that nowadays it is easy to withdraw from physical social life without losing virtual contact with others.
The paper endeavours to semantically scrutinize anglicisms in Der Spiegel in the specialist field of IT. It was attempted to establish if, and to what extent, the anglicisms alter their meaning in the borrowing process. The article focuses on randomly selected anglicisms in IT-related texts in Der Spiegel, for both the newspaper and the domain are deemed to have been the most prolific in terms of English borrowings. The objective of this comparative study is to arrive at certain general tendencies governing the semantic treatment of English words in German. The paper constitutes merely an excerpt from the research on IT-related anglicisms, and may well serve as a basis for further research, on the grounds that alongside the development of ICT, languages need new names for concepts. Therefore, it is by all means prudent and instructive to delve into the tendencies governing the way anglicisms permeate into the German language.
The aim of this article is to characterize the German minority press market in Poland in the period of 1989-2017. The article constitutes a discussion regarding terms that are key for the undertaken subject, i.e., “national minority”, “ethnic minority” and “the press of national and ethnic minorities”; furthermore, a typology of the functions of these media is presented. The analysis covered the socio-political framework of the functioning of minority media, as well as legal regulations at the level of publishing activities of national and ethnic minorities and the support of the Polish state towards publishing initiatives of minorities from 1989 to the present day. The article also constitutes an overview of German minority press issued in 1989 - 2017 in the Polish state. Characteristics of the periodicals contain information about their creation, presentation of graphic layout and publishing formula, as well as the thematic profile of the published contents. Approximating the German minority in Poland, the author attempts to answer the question of what role the German press once played in the Polish German society, and what is its role today, as well as who are the recipients of the German press in Poland today, what is its current condition and what are the prognoses for its development in the short and longer term. The conducted research applied technical analysis and analysis of press content. The study uses a number of sources. These include state documents published in journals of law, in various types of bulletins, reviews and in the on-line version.
What emotions can students experience in digitally mediated learning processes? In this paper, we connect Learning Analytics to the Grounded Theory in order to analyse the emotional world of students of 11 courses within the EduOpen (www.eduopen.org) massive open online course (MOOC) platform. Namely, we have used NVivo 11 Plus software and have adopted a bottom–up process to analyse the forum dedicated to students’ self-presentation from all the courses. Proceeding with the analysis, we defined a set of categories composed of a three-level system. At a more general level, we have two dimensions that we named, respectively, ‘Sentiments about shell’ and ‘Sentiments towards the pulp’. Each of these dimensions is composed of a number of ‘child’ categories and subcategories (which are the nodes in NVivo’s language). After defining the entire set of categories and categorising all the texts (which was a circular process), we run some graphs on NVivo showing the hierarchical structure of the dimensions, the relations between the dimensions and the sources and the clusters of dimensions by coding similarity. The results show how some courses are composed of more negative or more positive sentiments (towards the topic and/or the logistic arrangement of the course) and how the motivation dimension characterises the broad emotional dimension of students heavily. In an evidence-based action-research perspective, these results provide interesting suggestions to personalise the learning activities proposed to students by EduOpen.
The purpose of this article is find out about the role that was played by Twitter during the first week of Ferguson Unrests that started on the 9th of August 2014. As a source base for this work the author analyzes the newspapers, magazine journalism and articles upon the death of Michael Brown to show how local journalists and activists used Twitter to communicate and comment on his death. Through the examination of hashtag usage, the author demonstrates how Twitter has become a powerful tool to start nationwide discussion, as well as how hashtag activism can trigger creation of a new social movement.