Browse

You are looking at 91 - 100 of 90,476 items

Open access

Sandip Jana and Supriyo Mazumder

Abstract

A quasimodel is an algebraic axiomatisation of the hyperspace structure based on a module. We initiated this structure in our paper [2]. It is a generalisation of the module structure in the sense that every module can be embedded into a quasi module and every quasi module contains a module. The structure a quasimodel is a conglomeration of a commutative semigroup with an external ring multiplication and a compatible partial order. In the entire structure partial order has an intrinsic effect and plays a key role in any development of the theory of quasi module. In the present paper we have discussed order-morphism which is a morphism like concept. Also with the help of the quotient structure of a quasi module by means of a suitable compatible congruence, we have proved order-isomorphism theorem.

Open access

O. P. Kurnosova, M. V. Arisov and I. M. Odoyevskaya

Summary

A study screening pet animals (dogs, cats, chinchillas, ferrets, guinea pigs, rabbits, primates, reptiles, and hedgehogs) within Moscow city limits for intestinal parasitic diseases has been conducted over a period of 6 years. According to the study, parasitic infections caused by intestinal protozoa are found in pet animals more frequently than by intestinal helminths. Although dogs and cats exhibit the highest level of diversity of intestinal parasite species, in the group of exotic animals, helminth infection are found much less frequently and parasitic fauna is represented mostly by intestinal protozoa with a high percentage of mixed infection. The most widespread helminth infeсtion of dogs and cats is toxocarosis (respectively 2.5 and 5.7 %) and the most widespread protozoan infection is Giardia sp. (9.8 and 4.6 %). Giardia sp. was found in 47.4 % of chinchillas, Cryptosporidium sp. was more frequently found in ferrets (6.55 %), protozoa from the family Trichomonadida was found in guinea pigs (9 %), Eimeria sp. in rabbits (13.9 %), Acanthocephala in primates (15.7 %), and eggs from the generaOxyurida (59 %), along with protozoa from the family Trichomonadida, in reptiles. Capillaria sp. was most prevalent in hedgehogs (33.4 %). Acanthocephala eggs, as well as protozoa from the Giardia and Entamoeba genera, were more frequently found in primates. Parasites common to animals and humans, which may become a source of infection for the latter under certain conditions, have been identified in pet animals.

Open access

Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk

Abstract

Institutional support, reflected not only in legislative solutions, but also in external funding as a means of financial support, is of strategic importance for the success of new power investments, the guarantee of energy security of individual areas, and the socio-economic development of the region where new energy enterprises are located. The present study aims to follow the external funding of biogas investments carried out in Poland, both in the aspect of legal regulations, and the offered co-financing of biogas projects. Considering that biogas enterprises are located and operate in specific places and local systems, the present research problem is tackled from the perspective of the functioning of biogas plants in the local environment. The success of biogas projects and the entire energy transformation process depends, on the one hand, on the harmonisation of activities at the central, national level and, on the other hand, on taking into account the specific socio-economic features that characterise the location of the biogas plant. Therefore, providing comprehensive institutional support for investment for biogas enterprises requires equipping local institutions, including local authorities, with appropriate instruments to shape and monitor the agricultural biogas market at the local level.

Open access

Anna Kołodziejczak

Abstract

Article describes access to tourist information and the consistency of tourist offers with this kind of information for people with disabilities. The conception of accessible tourism was presented as well as the model of tourist information availability with the demonstration of technology applied to ensure objective information about all services so as people with disabilities could evaluate the scope of accessibility according to their personal needs. Based on the analysis of information systems found on Internet tourist portals what is presented is the scope of information availability from the point of view of people with disabilities. These information systems largely contribute to the development of accessible tourism. In Poland, the issue of implementing the assumption of accessible tourism, including the availability of a coherent information system is an important challenge that requires integrated systemic activities of many entities.

Open access

D. M. Amorim and R. W. Ávila

Summary

Climatic and ecological factors can influence the parasite load of a host. Variation in rainfall, body size, and sex of the hosts may be related to the abundance of parasites. This study investigated the helminth fauna associated with a population of Norops brasiliensis, together with the effect of host biology (sex, body size, and mass) and variation in rainfall regime on the abundance of helminths. Species of three groups of endoparasites were found (Nematoda, Cestoda, and Trematoda), with nematodes as the most representative taxa with eight species, prevalence of 63.2 %, mean intensity of 4.0 ± 0.58 (1 – 25), and mean abundance of 2.66 ± 0.44 (0 – 25). Nine helminth species are new host records for N. brasiliensis. The nematode Rhabdias sp. had the highest prevalence (53.3 %). There was no significant relationship between abundance of the trematode Mesocoelium monas and host sex or season, although the abundance of this parasite increased significantly with host body size and mass, while abundance of nematodes was related to season and host mass. This study increases the knowledge about the diversity of helminth fauna associated with N. brasiliensis, revealing infection levels of hosts from northeastern Brazil.

Open access

Katarzyna Wilpiszewska

Abstract

The hydrophilic films based on starch and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) were obtained using cast method. The effect of CMS content on the physicochemical properties of prepared films were evaluated. With increasing content of starch derivative the moisture absorption, solubility in water as well as swelling ratio increased. The highest values of mechanical parameters (tensile strength and Young’s modulus) were determined for the starch/CMS film containing the lowest CMS amount, i.e. 10 wt.% (1.1 MPa, 15 MPa, respectively). For the same system the lowest moisture absorption, solubility in water as well as swelling ratio were reported. Thus, it could be concluded that for this system the highest crosslinking density has been achieved, what was confirmed by DMTA results. Such a film could potentially find application in food or agricultural industry.

Open access

Katarzyna Wasilewska and Katarzyna Winnicka

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a tendency toward creating innovative, easy to use and patient-friendly drug delivery systems suitable for every consumer profile, which would ensure safety, stability and acceptability of a drug. One of the relatively novel and promising approaches is the manufacture of orodispersible films (ODFs), which is an upcoming area of interest in drug delivery. They are defined as polymer thin films that disintegrate in the oral cavity within seconds, without drinking water or chewing, and eliminate the risk of choking. Gaining special usefulness in therapies of children and the elderly, ODFs seem to fill the gap in the range of preparations available for these groups of patients. As no detailed monography of ODFs including testing methods and uniform requirements has been presented in any of the pharmacopoeias to date, the aim of this article is to give an overview of the applied testing methods, their modifications and innovative approaches related to ODF quality assessment.

Open access

F. Moravec, A. Chaudhary and H. S. Singh

Summary

A new nematode species, Heliconema monopteri n. sp. (Physalopteridae), is described from the stomach and intestine of the freshwater fish Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton) (Synbranchidae) in Bijnor district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is mainly characterized by the lengths of spicules (468 – 510 µm and 186 – 225 µm), the postequatorial vulva without elevated lips, the presence of pseudolabial lateroterminal depressions and by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae. This is the first representative of the genus reported from a synbranchiform fish. Another new congeneric species, Heliconema pisodonophidis n. sp. is established based on a re-examination of nematodes previously reported as H. longissimum (Ortlepp, 1922) from Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton) (Ophichthidae) in Thailand; ovoviviparity in this species is a unique feature among all physalopterids. Heliconema hamiltonii Bilqees et Khanum, 1970 is designated as a species dubia and the nematodes previously reported as H. longissimum from Mastacembelus armatus (Lacépède) in India are considered to belong to H. kherai Gupta et Duggal, 1989. A key to species of Heliconema Travassos, 1919 is provided.

Open access

Václav Šimůnek, Zdeněk Vacek, Stanislav Vacek, Ivo Králíček and Karel Vančura

Abstract

Long-term temporal development of beech stands in relation to climatic conditions is well documented by dendrochronological analyses. The study aims to identify and describe growth factors affecting natural European beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) on permanent research plots in the eastern Krkonoše Mountains, the Czech Republic. The paper focus on radial growth dynamics, frequency and cyclicity, and the effect of climatic factors on diameter increment of beech stands since 1850. The growth development of beech stands was significantly affected by air pollution load in 1977–1989, and increasingly frequent climate extremes in recent years (since 2010). Periodic increment events recurred in approximately 10–18 years’ periods. Stands on research plots responded differently to climatic factors, the main limiting factor being low temperatures during the growing season, frost damages and extreme droughts. The positive influence of temperatures on beech increments was recorded in winter, early spring, and especially in July and August of the current year. Conversely, precipitation in the previous year had higher impact on radial increment, with prevailing negative correlation. The plots were negatively affected by the decrease in sum of precipitation in February and March, but it was the temperature that influenced the beech increment most significantly. Dendrochronological analysis of close-to-nature beech stands provides valuable information on radial forest growth in response to changing climatic conditions.

Open access

M. R. Werneck, A. Mastrangelli, R. Velloso, P. Baldassin, H. Jerdy and E. C. Q. Carvalho

Summary

The present note describes the occurrence of Rhytidodoides intestinalis and Rhytidodoides similis (Digenea: Rhytidodidae) in the gallbladder of two juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas - Testu- dines, Cheloniidae) found on the coast of Brazil. Both were detected in gallbladder and intestine of green turtles: Rhytidodoides similis (United States, Panama, Costa Rica and Brazil) and R. intestinais (United States, Panama and Costa Rica). This note is the first report of R. intestinalis in Brazil and South-West Atlantic Ocean. Also the histological lesions caused by the parasites in one gallbladder are described.