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The article addresses the need to identify and quantify the external costs of air pollution on the health of the population, especially children. The subjects of evaluation are the respiratory illnesses acute nasopharyngitis and acute bronchitis, both of which have very high incidence in connection with air pollution. The aim of this paper is to estimate the cost of morbidity and to determine the amount of additional social costs of airway morbidity among children aged 0–15 years in Ostrava city, one of the most polluted cities in Europe, compared to the incidence of these diseases in the whole Czech Republic. Estimation of social costs is based on the Cost-Of-Illness approach, in which the total value is made up of the costs actually incurred in treating illness and in loss of productivity. Using this approach, additional costs related to the treatment of illnesses were calculated at approximately €20 million per year, which represents approximately 0.4% of Ostrava's regional gross domestic product (GDP).


The paper focuses on the main features of corporate volunteering in companies from the Sverdlovsk region (Russian Federation), with a population surpassing 4.5 million inhabitants. Corporate volunteering is analyzed in the context of the trend characteristic for the post-Soviet space. The article systematizes approaches to the definition and study of this phenomenon, implemented by researchers from different countries. The main goal of the article is to identify the specific features of corporate volunteering in a large Russian region, considered typical for industrial territories in post-Soviet areas, seen through the social value that local communities attribute to corporate volunteering. The paper is based on the results of a public opinion poll and structured interviews, carried out in the Sverdlovsk region, where there is a concentration of enterprises of “hard” industries. The responses obtained in the poll were further subjected to analysis using statistical methods. The data are supplemented with information collected through the qualitative interviews. Interviewed experts are the top managers of enterprises and the deputy directors for HR, GR, or social issues. The study shows that in Russian industrial cities, where large enterprises are the main employers for most residents, many questions on the implementation of social policy fall under the responsibility of these enterprises, and not of the local government. Researchers argue that corporate volunteering is not widespread in the large Russian regions. It most often develops within the framework of event planning and environmental projects, managed by enterprises in cooperation with social and cultural institutions of local communities and not with the non-profit sector. The traditions of the organization of mass social work formed during the socialist period are still deeply rooted in enterprises, and managers rarely identify volunteering as a new managerial tool, thus being untangled from the global trend of promoting corporate volunteerism as a means of building corporate culture.


This paper deals with the principle of subsidiarity in asylum law. It exposes some of the most important ‘push’ factors that have been considered by the European Union (EU) as arguments for the centralisation of asylum law. Through the application of an economic approach, this text examines the need for harmonization of asylum standards to reach the goal established in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. An economic methodology is used to investigate the application of the subsidiarity principle by considering some of the most important economic criteria for both centralisation and decentralisation, and by applying the findings to the asylum law. Specifically, this paper considers the Tiebout model, the problem of the ‘race to the bottom’, the reduction of transaction costs, and the importance of the protection of refugee human rights. These theories are commonly used in the cases of a specific issue with a transboundary nature, which produces [negative] international externalities. In addition, they reflect the significance of equal conditions within the EU Member States as well as the role of the EU as a sui generis organisation protecting human rights. It should be noted that this paper does not deal with the basic normative question of whether or not refugees deserve protection, but it aims to expose the advantages and disadvantages of an EU asylum policy. In its conclusion, the paper discusses the advantages of a centralised EU policy that also allows, within certain conditions, some type of competition between the Member States.


In this article, we aim to explain international differences in socio-demographic structure of population among people around retirement age. We further test if transition into retirement is an important factor for obesity. Using Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) data, we first document that the Czech Republic has a significant and increasing trend in body mass index (BMI) and obesity (BMI > 29.99) for both men and women aged 50–70 years compared to other countries. Men have much higher level of BMI in comparison to many other European countries, whereas BMI of women is comparable to Estonia and Slovenia. However, we show a little evidence that underlying structure of Czech population with respect to education, occupation, health, age, and so on may explain increasing trend as well as higher level of obesity when compared to other European countries. Furthermore, we show that the transition into retirement is not associated with an increase in BMI. Using fixed effect model, we found that the obesity is directly related to increasing trend in obesity already before entering the retirement.


Subject and purpose of work: Agriculture has historically been an important sector in Kosovo’s economy however the biggest challenges are migration, land fragmentation, and access to market and finance. Support from the Government of Kosovo for the agriculture and rural development sector is based on the ARDP 2007-13 and includes direct support measures that strongly correspond to Pillar I measures under CAP and rural development support measures similar to CAP Pillar II. The objective of this paper is to assess three measures (101,103,302) under the national plan of agriculture and rural development of Kosovo.

Materials and methods: Measure 101, “Investments in Physical Assets in Agricultural Holdings” fruit sector, grape sector. Measure 103, “Investments in physical assets concerning the processing and marketing of agricultural and fishery products”. Measure 302, “Farm Diversification and Business Development”.

Results: Results showed support is increased which directly affected new job creation however this should continue with increasing the budget as these measures affect the rural economy directly by creating jobs contributing to sustainable agriculture and reducing migration.

Conclusions: The most important measure in terms of budget allocation and number of projects implemented was Measure 101. The largest number of beneficiaries from measure 101 originated from the Prizren and Prishtine Region.


Subject and purpose of work: This paper presents bioeconomy as a solution to sustainable development challenges in Africa. It identifies the current state of bioeconomy and its production determinants in African countries and regions, and the potential that bioeconomy has in these jurisdictions. This paper also highlights possible policy inputs for a sustainable bioeconomy on the continent.

Materials and methods: In addition to a systematic literature review, statistical databases and published indices, the paper also builds on the classical theory of productive forces to achieve its objectives.

Results: The bioeconomy potentials of African countries are poor when compared with those of countries with dedicated bioeconomy policies or strategies. Most of the bioeconomy related activities in Africa were centred on biofuel production as a substitute to fossil fuels.

Conclusions: African countries must formulate cohesive bioeconomy policies, make necessary targeted investments in research and innovation, and improve general governance to take advantage of opportunities in emerging sectors of bioeconomy to ensure sustainable livelihoods on the continent.


Subject and purpose of work: This paper presents the development of human capital on the labour market of the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship in 2004-2017.

Materials and methods: The study uses methods of literature review and comparative analysis based on data provided by Statistics Poland.

Results: The results of the analysis show that constant development of human capital is taking place in the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship, and its level measured by the number of students and graduates of universities, as well as the number of registered patents is comparable to the average in Poland. The high quality of human capital contributed to achieving above-average economic results and household incomes.

Conclusions: Development of human capital and raising professional qualifications at post-graduate studies was particularly important in the period of negative impact on the Polish economy of the financial crises of 2007-2009 and 2010-2012. A combination of higher education and innovative abilities, as well as involvement in R&D contributed to the increased competitiveness of the voivodeship’s economy.


Subject and purpose of work: This paper deals with the issues of occupational activation of economically inactive persons. Its objective is to provide the reader with an outline of labour market problems and the situation of the economically inactive population*. Persons who qualify neither as employed or as unemployed potentially constitute an untapped labour potential. The focus in this paper is on economically inactive persons and the reasons they do not seek employment, in order to better understand, first, the causes behind such a low occupational activity and, second, the possible remedial measures. In view of the urgent need for reintegrating persons outside the labour force with the labour market, it appears of utmost importance to identify the reasons for their situation. The fact that nearly 5.02 million working-age Poles remain economically inactive (accounting for nearly 22.0% of the whole working-age population) indicates how huge their potential may be. Special attention will be paid to groups of potential workers who have barely marked their presence on the labour market. One such group is formed by over 2.35 million individuals who are outside the labour market for reasons unrelated to health or retirement age.

Materials and methods: The analysis is based on the annual and quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS) data provided by Statistics Poland, and data originating from the Local Data Bank. To facilitate a wider discussion, the statistical data presented in the article cover a multi-annual perspective. This information is supplemented with research results obtained by other authors. Use is made of different methods of data analysis, including a descriptive analysis – to determine the underlying figures regarding the number of economically inactive persons; a dynamics analysis – to identify changes that occurred in 2006-2019 in the figures determined in the descriptive analysis; and a comparative analysis – to assess trends regarding economically inactive persons by comparing selected data with those that have been recently recorded in other EU countries.

Results: The scale of economic inactivity in 2016-2019 is assessed on the basis of statistical data presented in tables and figures regarding economically inactive persons by the most common reason for inactivity. The analytical part of this paper features thematic blocks/detailed analyses of the demographic situation, the level and breakdown of economically inactive persons, and changes in their numbers that have taken place in recent years.

Conclusions: The constantly declining working-age population, coupled with the low level of occupational activity in some age groups, should encourage decision-makers to design adequate labour market policies/programmes to support the occupational activity of Poles. Labour supply improvements should be sought mainly through the occupational activation of economically inactive persons and through extending the period of occupational activity.


Subject and purpose of work: Today, each united territorial community (UTC) has tourist potential, but not all can recognise, evaluate and use it. This paper deals with presenting contemporary issues and identifying prospects for green tourism development in united territorial communities.

Materials and methods: This paper includes general scientific and special methods of research, in particular, analysis and synthesis, systematisation and generalization, and the dialectical approach. A dialectical method of cognition is used to specify the features of rural green tourism organisation in the EU Member States.

Results: The internal potential and opportunities for its involvement in the development of green tourism in the UTC were determined. The foreign experience is analysed and the perspectives of use of their practice in the development of green tourism are considered. The complex of tasks of the UTC to ensure the development of rural green tourism in the UTC of Ukraine is highlighted. It is established that green tourism can be an additional factor in filling the revenue part of the UTC’s budget and a factor in strengthening its capacity. A SWOT analysis of the development of green tourism in the UTCs of Ukraine was out. The main directions of development of green tourism were highlighted.

Conclusions: It was determined that green tourism could act as a catalyst for economic restructuring, provide demographic stability and solve the socio-economic problems arising nowadays during the formation and development of UTCs in Ukraine.


Subject and purpose of work: Human capital is one of the key drivers of rural economic development. The purpose of this paper was to study the main assets of human capital in rural areas and to evaluate this human capital; to identify development trends and devise the recommendations for increasing the impact of human capital in Ukraine’s rural areas on individual incomes and economic growth.

Materials and methods: The research focuses on evaluating the key assets of human capital in the rural areas of Ukraine – educations, health, qualifications, age and the integral evaluation of rural human capital. The data was gathered by random surveys of household living conditions conducted by the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Annual surveys cover 10,500 households.

Results: Results demonstrate that there were positive dynamics under the education component, while the health component was constantly in decline. The quantitative scoring of assets allowed preparing an integrated evaluation of human capital in rural areas of Ukraine and observing the dynamics of change in years. This indicator had declined before 2008. A decrease in the level of rural human capital in Ukraine started with the activation of large-scale agri-business in the late 1990s. Since 2009, human capital in rural areas has been increasing. The dynamics of human capital development in the rural areas of post- Euromaidan Ukraine demonstrate the specific nature of its capitalisation. Profit per human capital in rural areas depends not on its rate but on the human capital (holder) employment profile.

Conclusions: Received evaluations could be used for separation of priority state policy actions for balanced development, quantitative renovation and accumulation of human capital in rural areas.