The purpose of this study is to analyze economic reforms conducted in Ukraine during the period of the state’s independence. And also to identify, with the help of scientific tools – system analysis, management problems in the economy, their diagnosis, identification of the consequences that led to these problems, and ways development (at conceptual level) for their solving. The authors of the article proposed the concept of reforms in Ukraine. At the heart of the concept is the administrative reform aimed at creating organizational conditions under which corruption in power is almost completely neutralized. It is argued that such conditions are created by ensuring transparency, introduction of new information technologies, and minimizing the proportion of the so-called “human factor”. Within the framework of the innovative project (model) of economic management, it is envisaged to redistribute central power between the central apparatus of economic management, local authorities and the non-state sector.
The purpose of this article is to explore the subject of applying to the European Court of Human Rights in tax cases, the place of decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the system of sources of tax law, the problems arising from the application of ECtHR decisions by Ukrainian courts in tax cases. The research was carried out using formal-dogmatic, system-structural, comparative-legal, historical and other methods of scientific cognition. The author concludes that it is important to use the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights to resolve public law disputes, the subject of which is public finances. After all, the Ukrainian tax system and tax legislation, the tax status of taxpayers and tax authorities should be based on the fundamental principles enshrined in the Convention and which have repeatedly been systematically interpreted in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.
Job polarization simply refers to the decline or disappearance of employment in middle skill occupations. Recent literature focuses on this phenomenon as a source of rising income inequality in countries. The hypothesis is that growth in employment over the last decades has favoured jobs at the low and high skill occupations with declines in employment shares in the middle of the distribution. First, this paper seeks to investigate whether labour polarization occurs in Central and Eastern European countries. Secondly, the paper assesses the role of technology on employment in the Central and Eastern European countries. Using employment shares and a cointegrated panel autoregressive distributed lag model, the paper presents comprehensive results on labour polarization and the impact of technology on employment in the labour markets of the Central and Eastern European countries. The results show positive impact of technology on high skill employment while negative on low and middle skill employment in the long-run. The study finds that though middle skill employment shares declined, there is no clear case of a U-shape employment distribution to indicate labour polarization.
As mediation and its support across the European Union have been growing, we can assume that the public is better aware of this option of dispute resolution. The law acquaintance with the focus on mediation has not been studied extensively, although the identification of the current state is crucial for formulating the effective strategies for its broader use. The aim of this paper based on the quantitative survey on a representative sample in the Czech Republic is to examine the mediation awareness and its differences across individual characteristics. The statistical analysis identifies very low awareness of mediation and its aspects. Moreover, this knowledge is higher among people with higher education, among middle-aged people and older people living in bigger municipalities. Based on the findings, the authors suggest that targeted campaigns organised by the state should be conducted through the channels accessible to the sociodemographic groups with lower awareness of mediation.
Czech workers’ compensation is “exemplified” by the adoption of the Worker’s Accident Insurance Act in 2006, four deferments of its effective date and then complete annulment of the Act. A temporary settlement aimed at resolving the incompatibility of the communist model of workers’ compensation for work accidents and occupational illnesses with the transition to a market economy after 1989 involved the implementation of statutory employer liability insurance for work accidents and occupational illnesses, outsourced to two private insurance companies; the current Czech government does not seem to have a know how to deal with it. The objective of this paper is primarily to advise the government using primarily the formulation and comparison of four basic social workers’ compensation models and furthermore considering the existing sickness, pension and health insurance systems. The choice of a social model is namely a matter of public choice, but intensive lobbying also constitutes part of these processes. The analyses result in a recommendation to “dissolve” the statutory employer liability insurance into a jointly collected social insurance contribution for sickness and pension insurance, and partly to transform the current accident benefits into increased sickness and pension benefit assessments and partly to cancel them.
In order to boost students’ entrepreneurial activities, it is essential to identify the factors that form entrepreneurial intentions and to investigate how the development of these factors can be influenced. This paper attempts to explore the main drivers of entrepreneurial intentions and to examine national differences in students’ entrepreneurship by using the database of the GUESSS research project related to the Visegrad countries, namely Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. This paper adopts Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour, according to which attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control influence entrepreneurial intentions.
The results of this research confirm the significant role that attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control play in shaping students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Differences can be experienced not only in the level of intentions, but also in the strength of each factor across Visegrad countries, which suggests that there is a need for solutions tailored the students’ needs in different Visegrad countries. Neither the age nor the gender that are frequently investigated in the literature can significantly increase the explanatory power of the Ajzen’s model. Their effect may be perceived in different attitudes and different behavioural control.
The research presented in the paper aims to find out whether the public support (subsidies) received by cluster organizations for their development and activities is efficient. That means whether the state receives a return on investment in the form of increased revenues to public budgets. The research was conducted on a sample of seven cluster organizations that include the following sectors: furniture, packaging and textile production, engineering, the automotive industry, IT and nanotechnology. For each cluster organization, the data on subsidies was drawn from the moment of their establishment until 2017. At the same time, a list of the cluster member organizations was drawn up, with financial data being collected only for business entities. For each enterprise, information about paid corporate income tax, income tax on employment from employee wages, and social and health insurance paid by the companies and their employees was collected. In the next phase, increases in taxes and insurances were monitored and compared to the year in which the cluster organization drew a subsidy for the first time. Subsequently, the public support efficiency rate and payback period were calculated. The research results show that public support for cluster organizations is efficient, with a relatively short payback period.
Using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model (DSGE) with the housing sector, this paper evaluates the impact of housing collateral on the business cycle in the Czech economy. We devote special attention to the setting of the loan to value (LTV) ratio, which we believe plays an important role as a regulator of the monetary transmission mechanism. The impacts of LTV ratio are quantified by simulating the responses of alternative LTV level setting on key macroeconomic variables. Our simulations are based on an estimated DSGE model. Our approach allows us to understand better the responses of the real economy to the tightening of monetary policy moderated by different LTV levels. Our results show that higher loan to value ratios strengthen the effect of the monetary transmission mechanism to consumption and output.
This paper investigates the impact of country size on the DSEG model estimation of the monetary union. Following DSGE model for fiscal policy simulations (FiMod) the union is considered to have a two-country structure, the investigated country has weight in union equal to its population share and the second country represents the rest of members. The model is estimated for different country sizes and it is found there are two areas of equilibrium instability which covers 11 of 19 European Monetary Union members. The result is in contrary with who estimated FiMod for Spain and stated that model can be recalibrated to every member of the monetary union. According to the result the size of country matters and affects the stability of equilibrium. Therefore, special attention is paid to small economies in monetary union. The results and consequences are then discussed with examples from recent history.
The author justifies the right of business entities to free economic initiative on the basis of the human right (hereinafter ‘HR’ or ‘HRs’) to liberty, and the right to positive discrimination of small and medium-sized enterprises (hereinafter ‘SMEs’) on the HR to equality, which is in the legal sense implemented by the HR to equal protection. Such positive discrimination ensures the equal protection of SMEs in the conditions of a free market (hereinafter ‘FM’) competition. Taking HRs as his starting points, the author discusses legal policy reasons that impose the duty to enact special measures in favour of SMEs on the legislature, and evaluates the legal sources in the Republic of Slovenia that regulate such measures. By means of the results obtained from a survey conducted with SMEs, the author examines the effects of measures to ensure the equal market position of SMEs, which in the conditions of economic globalisation enables a fair market game between SMEs and large enterprises, to ensure SMEs their existence and further development.