The present paper deals with culture-specific items as a translational problem. It is based on two Polish translations of four Swedish books from the famous detective series by Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö.
The aim of the study is to analyze some of the practices employed by two Polish translators against the translation methods proposed by Newmark (1988), Svane (2002) and Ingo (2009). For this purpose a number of highly specific cultural items have been collected and the methods applied by translators have been identified.
The analysis has shown a big difference between translators in dealing with culture-specific items. The first translator, Maria Olszańska, adopts such translation methods as calque translation, hyperonym, functional equivalent, paraphrase and omission. The other translator, Halina Thylwe, prefers transference and calque translation combined with additional explanations, either in the main part of the text or in footnotes. The methods employed by both translators are a result of choosing between global translation strategies domestication and foreignization (Venuti 1995). Domestication, adopted in the older translations, minimizes the strangeness of the Swedish text to the Polish readers, whereas foreignization in the newer translations retains the foreignness of the original.
The article is an attempt at analyzing Danish nomina instrumenti among compounds and finding patterns of equivalence in Polish. The analysis of the collected corpus has shown that the Polish equivalents of the Danish compounds are not compounds but, with the exception of a minor group of derivates, they have the form of phrases. The analysis has shown patterns of regular Polish structures corresponding to the Danish compounds.
Compounding seems to be the most productive word formation process in Swedish on the basis of “new words’ lists” (Swedish: nyordslistor) registered by the Language Council of Sweden (Svenska Språkrådet). The subject of the research was the productiveness of compounds and their comprehensibility for the native speakers. The material for the corpus analysis showing the productivity of compounds consisted of 353 compound words from the lists from years 2000 – 2012. With help of a survey where pupils from a secondary school in Tingsryd in Småland were asked to define 17 compounds from “new words’ list” 2008 a conclusion could be drawn that compound words are short-lived, ephemeral constructions. The analysis has shown the big pace of changes that the lexicon undergoes and the linguistic creativity of language users as well as their strong need to create new terms. The results can evoke questions about the effectiveness of communication in relation to the features of new words.
The article is based on my unpublished master’s thesis.
The so-called ‘moral reorientation’ (Dutch: ‘morele heroriëntatie’) was a large-scale Dutch project, aimed at an improvement of ethical standards of society in the 18th century. It was also a reaction to the decay of the Dutch Republic reflected in the literature at the end of the 18th century. Using magazines, drama’s and novels, authors provided example of a right behaviour and criticized all those phenomena, which led to a moral malaise in society. One of these phenomena was a boundless love for France, its culture, fashion, literature and philosophy. In literature it was presented as a grave danger for Dutch identity. The term ‘francophilia’ was invented.
Also two Dutch female writers, Betje Wolff and Aagje Deken reacted on the dangerous symptoms of the ‘francophilia’ and warned against it in their novel Sara Burgerhart (1782). In my article I discuss some rhetorical devices, used by the authors to warn against the ‘francophilia.’ I analyse how they defined and further criticized this phenomenon.
The Cor Iesu amanti sacrum, a series of engravings made by Anton II Wierix around the year 1600, became one of the most important series of religious emblems from the 17th and 18th centuries. The engravings’ printed reception is well known: there are numerous graphical copies, as well as books written on the basis of the emblems, starting with the work by the French Jesuit Étienne Luzvic, entitled Le cœur devot throsne royal de Iesus pacifique Salomon, from 1626. The article discusses the handwritten reception of the series, which until now has remained virtually uninvestigated. The authors analyze five works of literature, preserved in Polish and Netherlandish 17th-century manuscripts and inspired by the engravings from the Cor Iesu amanti sacrum: Het herte Jesu by an anonymous Netherlandish protestant (a manuscript from Tilburg), Opofferingh van het herte aan den Bruijdegom Iesus Christus by the Netherlandish scientist and doctor Jan Swammerdam (a manuscript from Ghent), and three untitled Polish versions: a poetical collection by the Jesuit Mikołaj Mieleszko, dedicated to the Duchess Katarzyna Radziwiłł in 1657 (a manuscript from Saint-Petersburg) and two different works preserved in monastic libraries (manuscripts from Imbramowice and Stary Sącz).
Polish language contains hundreds of loan words from Dutch. They are rooted so firmly that they are capable of creating new words. This article presents the most common word-formation phenomena involving Dutch loan words. It also highlights their ability to form phrasemes and transfer meanings.
Although in the early-modern period The Hague was not officially a city, its identity was based on specifically urban features. During the 17th and 18th century, its ambiguous status was explored by the authors of verse urban encomia and prose descriptiones urbium. In this article, the presentation of The Hague will be first discussed on the example of Caspar Barlaeus’ Latin poem “Haga”, and Constantijn Huygens’ Dutch encomium “’s Gravenhage” from the Dorpen [Villages] cycle of epigrams. Then, the image of The Hague will be examined in the context of an allegorical representation by Jan Caspar Philips in Jacob de Riemer’s Beschryving van ‘s Graven-hage [Description of The Hague, 1730]. The concluding remarks address the question of how the transformation of the status of The Hague undertaken by these writers and artists may be understood in the context of the literary-historical geography of the Northern Renaissance which has been a special subject of research by Professor Andrzej Borowski.