J. Fojt, V. Hybasek, P. Jarolimova, E. Pruchova, L. Joska and J. Malek
The titanium bioactivity could be increased by surface nanostructuring. Titanium alloys are using for dental implants manufacturing. It represents a specific problem because of using of the dental treatments with high concentration of fluoride ions and with acidic pH. The corrosion resistance of nanostructured surface of titanium beta alloy in environments with fluoride ions was examined by common electrochemical technique. The electrochemical impedance measurement showed high corrosion resistance in physiological solution. The fluoride ions have expected negative influence on corrosion behaviour of the layer. The nanotube bottom was preferentially attacked which resulted in layer undercoroding and its detachment.
D. Kajánek, B. Hadzima, J. Tkacz, J. Pastorková, M. Jacková and J. Wasserbauer
The coating prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was created on AZ31 magnesium alloy surface with the aim to evaluate its effect on corrosion resistance. The DC current was applied on the sample in solution consisted of 10 g/l Na3PO4·12H2O and 1 g/l KOH. Additional samples were prepared with 2 and 4 minutes of preparation to observe evolution of the PEO coating. Morphology of the coatings was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and chemical composition was examined by EDX analysis. Electrochemical characteristic were measured by potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M NaCl at the laboratory temperature. Obtained data were presented in form of potentiodynamic curves and Nyquist diagrams. Results of analysis showed that plasma electrolytic oxidation coating positively influence corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy in chosen corrosive environment.
Prasad U. Syam, V. V. Kondaiah, K. Akhil, V. Vijay Kumar, B. Nagamani, K. Jhansi, Ravikumar Dumpala, B. Venkateswarlu and Sunil B. Ratna
Magnesium and its alloys are now attracting a great attention as promising materials for several light weight engineering applications. ZE41 is a new Mg alloy contains Zinc, Zirconium and Rare Earth elements as the important alloying elements and is widely used in aerospace applications. In the present study, heat treatment has been carried out at two different temperatures (300 and 335 °C) to assess the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and corrosion behavior of ZE41 Mg alloy. The grain size was observed as almost similar for the unprocessed and heat treated samples. Decreased amount of secondary phase (MgZn2) was observed after heat treating at 300 °C and increased intermetallic phase (Mg7Zn3) and higher number of twins appeared for the samples heat treated at 335 °C. Microhardness measurements showed increased hardness after heat treating at 300 °C and decreased hardness after heat treating at 335 °C which can be attributed to the presence of higher supersaturated grains after heat treating at 300 °C. The samples heat treated at 335 °C exhibited better corrosion resistance compared to those of base materials and samples heat treated at 300 °C. From the results, it can be understood that the selection of heat treatment temperature is crucial that depends on the requirement i.e. to improve the microhardness or at the loss of microhardness to improve the corrosion resistance of ZE41 Mg alloy.
A. Guzanová, J. Brezinová, D. Draganovská and P.O. Maruschak
The paper focuses on assessment the resistance of hot-sprayed coatings applied by HVOF technology (WC–Co–Cr created using powder of two different grain sizes) against erosive wear by dry-pot wear test in a pin mill at two sample angles. As these coatings are designated for the environment with varying elevated temperatures and often are in contact with the abrasive, the coatings have been subjected to thermal cyclic loading and their erosive resistance has been determined in as-sprayed condition and after the 5th and 10th thermal cycles. The corrosion resistance of coatings was evaluated by linear polarization (Tafel analysis).
The requirements put on coating materials are more and more stringent mainly in the environmental domain, especially as regards VOC emissions. This is why water-based binders as alternatives to solvent-based binders, to provide paints possessing equally good use properties, are intensively sought. The objective of this work was to assess the anticorrosion and chemical properties of paint films based on new self-cross-linking acrylic latexes. The latexes were synthesized via two--step emulsion polymerisation to obtain a core-shell system. Nanostructural ZnO in an amount of 1.5 wt. % was added to the system during the latex binder synthesis. Paints with an enhanced corrosion resistance and chemical resistance of the films were prepared. The binders prepared were pigmented with anticorrosion pigments and their properties were compared to those of commercial water-based dispersions with either identical or different paint film formation mechanisms. The results gave evidence that if a well-selected pigment is used, the binders can be used to obtain anticorrosion coating materials for metallic substrates.
T. Lovasi, M. Kouril, T. Jamborova, J. Stoulil and S. Msallamova
Electrochemical chloride extraction from a reinforced concrete structure may be accompanied with an electrochemical injection of healing agents if such agents are positively charged and are able to migrate towards the activated reinforcement. Positive charge carried by nanoparticles or cathionic corrosion inhibitors might be the proper choice. Organic substances with a positive charge and their salts are mostly such inhibitors. The essential conditions for successful application of such corrosion inhibitors are their sufficient corrosion inhibition efficiency that was studied and evaluated and their stability of positive charge in chloride containing concrete pore solution.
The corrosion survey of the supporting steel/cast iron structure of the palm greenhouse included not only the characteristics of the used metal materials (microstructure, chemical composition), but also the current state of the system of corrosion protection (thickness and stratigraphy of the applied coating system). From a static point of view, the palm greenhouse design meets the applicable standards if two damaged cast iron columns are repaired. A new top coat with extended corrosion resistance is required on the surface of individual metal profiles.
The goal of the study was to compare corrosion performance of copper in different bentonite slurries. Copper coil samples were exposed in a slurries of bentonites BaM, Rokle, B75, G2M, Voltex, Sabenil. The test was carried out under anaerobic conditions in glovebox at laboratory temperature for duration of one to four months. Samples were evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction and mass loss. Liquid parts of slurries were analysed by ion chromatography and pH meter. The resistance of copper in all studied bentonites was very high. Corrosion rates were in order of tenths of micrometers per year. No trend between pore solution composition and corrosion rate or composition of corrosion products was observed.
In this paper, the influence of calcium cations on the corrosion behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel in model concrete pore solutions is evaluated by means of conventional electrochemical methods (measurement of free corosion potencial and polarization resistance), surface analysis methods (optical and confocal microscopy) and XRD phase analysis of precipitated corrosion products. The results of these experiments confirm the conclusions of the current work on a similar topic, i.e. the crystalline calcium based corrosion products Ca[Zn(OH)3]2·2H2O are not able passivate effectively surface of hot-dip galvanized steel in model of concrete pore solutions (pH 12.6; 13.0). If passivation occurs, a mixed Ca[Zn(OH)3]2·2H2O, ZnO and Zn(OH)2 is involved.
K. C. Strachotová, M. Kouřil, K. Kuchťáková and Š. Msallamová
Lead in archive environment suffers from severe corrosion attack caused by the organic acids’ vapours usually presented in such an environment. One of possible ways of corrosion protection of lead is its surface treatment by solutions of sodium salts of monocarboxylic acids (general formula CH3(CH2)n-2COONa, noted NaCn, n = 10, 11, 12). The principle of this corrosion protection is a creation of conversion coating on the lead’s surface, which decreases corrosion rate of lead in the atmospheric environment polluted by organic acids’ vapour. Our research aims at the selection of a suitable protection system that would be applicable to conservation of historical lead in archives and museums. This paper evaluates the corrosion behaviour of treated lead based on the values of polarisation resistance and shape of potentiodynamic curves in simulated corrosive environment (0.01 mol l−1 solution of acetic acid). The lead samples with different state of surface (pure, corroded and electrochemically cleaned) were treated with sodium salts of monocarboxylic acids NaCn (n = 10, 11, 12) having concentration of 0.01 and 0.05 mol l−1. In simulated corrosive atmosphere (above 0.001 mol l−1 acetic acid solution vapours), corrosion rate was measured by means of electrical resistance technique. The inhibition efficiency of monocarboxylic acids is dependent on their carbon chain length and their concentration. The greatest inhibiting efficiency in corrosive atmospheres and for all lead samples was observed for the sodium salt of dodecanoic acid having concentration of 0.05 mol l−1. Artificially created corrosion products and salt coatings were analysed by X-ray diffraction analysis and their surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. A protective salt coatings are mainly composed of metallic soaps in dimer form.