Searching for active, effective intervention approaches, aimed to improving health protection, not only among children and youth, is an up-to-date research intention from a number of points of view. The reason is the prevalence of civilization diseases, in our case the muscular and skeletal system offers a number of issues of the prevention in relation to feet position and body posture. Based on the above, the aim of research was to identify change of body posture in elementary school pupil by applying Propriofoot Concept in physical and sport education. The monitored group (n = 1), within selected seventh year of Elementary School Radovan Kaufman in Partizánske, consisted of male pupil (n = 1) (12 years of age, 48 kg, 160 cm and 18.75 Bmi) in pubescence who underwent various data acquisition methods (plantogram and visual scale method, index method, method of evaluation body posture, evaluation of dynamic spine function), after and before applying Propriofoot Concept, within lessons of physical and sport education, as their processing and evaluation was realized with the help of clinical case reports. The analysis and synthesis, inductive and deductive approaches, comparisons and generalizations were used, as well as the primary statistics (arithmetic mean (±) and percentage frequency analysis (%). The obtained research results pointed to the positive changes in all of the above mentioned data acquisition methods, i.e. in the plantogram and visual scale method (from pes planus/1st pes planus to norm), index method (- 0.24), method of evaluation body posture (from bad to good posture) and dynamic spine function (tests of Schober - + 1.8, Stibor - + 3.1 and Otto - + .7, + .8). The applied six-week intervention physical program, in the form of Propriofoot Concept, and within the school lessons of physical and sport education changed the body posture in the elementary school pupil and therefore the Propriofoot Concept is considered as health tool in acting and changing the body posture through the foot proprioception. The mentioned concept is considered as diversification of school physical and sport education, in connection with the applying new variants of health tools and changing body postures of the elementary and high school pupils/students.
Reda Mohamed Idris Khodja, Betar Hicham and Djamel Mokrani
This research was focused on the important question, what is the effect of the development of physiological adjustment of the physical load on the respiratory system and the performance of the skills of football players. In addition we tried to comfirm the relationship between the physical qualities and the performance of the skills. We have applied the experimental approach which best suits to this type of question. Proposing a program based on the physiological adjustment of the respiratory system, we applied the approach to a sample of twenty players (table 3), which were a deliberate sample divided into experimental and control, during the general physical preparation. The results confirmed that there are statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test of the experimental sample in both the respiratory system tests and the functional performance tests, in addition to statistical differences between the control and experimental groupe in the post-test.
Kristýna Hubená, Vladimír Süss and Irena Čechovská
Physical education has been the subject of research for a long time. Research focuses most often on the use of time to get pupils to move actively or on their physical load during a lesson. The evaluation of the didactic interaction of the teaching student - pupil(s) is also an essential area of research. The aim of the paper is to introduce the MADI method and its subsequent use in the evaluation of didactic outputs of teaching students in subjects focused on the didactics of swimming. The method Analysis of Didactic Interaction (ADI) has been modified to assess didactic interactions between the teaching (student) - pupil(s). Modified Analysis of Didactic Interaction (MADI) was created by reducing the number of monitored categories and focusing attention on the activity of the student. The achieved results showed that the most frequent form of behaviour among the students was observation followed by instruction. This influenced both the form of their manifestations, dominated by silence, and the overall manifestation, which was neutral and mostly without material significance. In terms of activities that have been the subject of didactic interaction, students have been taught these activities. The results obtained show that the chosen method seems to be effective for evaluation of didactic output of teaching students. A deeper analysis of student didactic outcomes can contribute to influencing the quality of student didactic competencies. At the same time, it can also serve as a feedback tool on their didactic activities for their faculty teachers.
Ladislava Doležajová, Tatiana Gallová and Anton Lednický
Basketball is a complex team sport, which combines cyclic and acyclic motion structures consisting mainly of fast and dynamic moves with or without a ball. The puberty is characterized by considerable variability that may occur earlier (developmental acceleration, early maturing) or later (developmental retardation, late maturing): an example can be a 12-year-old girl whom biological age could range from 9.5 to 14.5 years. For this study we selected 6 girls-players from the whole team. Two players were according to the norms from the zone of developmental retardation (BioRet), two players whose decimal and biological age i.e. bone age was identical (DC = BV), and the other two were in the biological acceleration zone (BioAkc.). All players were 13-years old and competed in the U14 category. We have confirmed that there are great differences in biological age in a group of 13-years old girls – in our research it has shown almost four years difference. We did not confirm the author's conclusions that biologically accelerated individuals achieved better results than the retarded ones in the speed and strength tests.
Belkadi Adel, Benchehida Abdelkader, Cherara Alia, Benbernou Othman, Sebbane Mohamed and Asli Houcin
The aim of the present study to verify the impact of judo competition on changes in the blood count of judo athletes during an official competition. Also to compare these results with the different weight category. Methods: fifteen youth trained athletes were included in the study were divided into three groups according to weight category (light, medial, and heavy) weight. All subjects performed a 5×4mn round of competition with 15mn of rest between rounds and Complete Blood Count (CBC) were collected before, immediately after the competition, Data are reported as mean and standard deviation. The Shapiro-Wilk test was performed to verify the normality of the data, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. Blood sample count was tested by a paired Student’s t-test to compare the pre-test and post-test for the three groups. The results showed that blood cell count was significantly decreased immediately after judo competition (p < 0.05). However, red blood cell, White blood cell Blood platelets, Mean Cell Volume were significantly increased after the performance (p < 0.05). The current study showed that the judo competition (Rondori) effectively enhance some blood cell count; these changes are transient and probably due to the adaptation to efforts related to judo competition in highly-trained athletes.
The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge about the influence of strength and endurance circuit training intervention on body image of the female high school students. Our hypothesis was: The objectively and subjectively measured body image among the 16 – 17 years old females will be significantly improved after the participation in 6-week strength and endurance circuit training. We used experiment with 2 groups from 2nd class from the secondary school: experimental (intervention) group consists of 15 female students (x̄age = 16.99 ± 0.29 years) and control group consists of 20 female students (x̄age = 17.11 ± 0.36 years). The experimental factor was the strength and endurance circuit training, practicing during 6 weeks (twice a week), performed during the physical education lessons. The body image of the girl was measured using 2 methods: the objective one was the somatometry (body height, body weight and Body Mass Index), subjective measurements of the body image were the Silhouettes – Contour Drawing Rating Scale (Thomson & Gray 1995). After these 6 weeks we succeeded in every measurement of the body image – the significant effect was noticed in the experimental group in pre- and post-test on Body Mass Index (p = 0,003) and on Contour Drawing Rating Scale (p = 0,003). According to the received knowledge we suggest to integrate this movement program to the lessons of the physical and sport education for the female adolescents.
Jaroslav Broďáni, Natália Kováčová and Monika Czaková
This article demonstrates the gender differences between the physical activity (PA), the joy of physical activity (PACES) and quality of life areas of boys and girls from high schools with different sports level and in the different ages. In this survey participated 630 boys and 672 girls from high schools in the age from 16 to 19 years. The quality of life is measured by the SQUALA survey, joy of the movement by the PACES survey, and the level of physical activity per week in hours by PAQ survey. The level of sports performance is defined by levels (occasional, active and registered sportsman). The data are presented by descriptive characteristics (n, M, SD) and the significance of differences and the relations are measure by non-parametric methods (W, rs). Differences in the PA, PACES, SQUALA levels at the group of boys and girls in the different age and sports level are rare. Different load of physical activity relates to sport level. It was not proven that with the increasing sports level, the joy of the physical activity also rises. The interactions between indicators of PA, PACES, and SQUALA in boys and girls in the different age and sports level were proven sporadically with a predominance of negative correlations. In most cases, the positive interactions of PA with PACES and areas of physical well-being was not proven. The higher appearance of positive correlations of PA with areas of SQUALA prevails in 18-years old girls. Boys show the higher number of interactions of PACES with areas of SQUALA. The joy of the movement positively correlates with spiritual well-being in groups of 18-19 years old boys, which perform physical activities in all sports levels. The gender differences between monitored indicators show that the gender factor is very important in this study. The age and sport level factor contributed significantly in the differentiated results of high school boys and girls.
Dagmar Nemček, Petra Kurková and Julie Wittmannová
The objective of this study was to analyse the level of subjective well-being (SWB) through five SWB dimensions and compare it between healthy male and healthy female high school students preferring sedentary leisure time activities. The research sample comprised of 90 male high school students (mean age 16.72 ± 1.33) and 126 female high school students (mean age 16.71 ± 1.36) who preferred sedentary types of leisure time activities with self-reported good health status. A standardized The Bern Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire for Adolescents (BFW) was used as a primary research method. We found significantly higher level of positive SWB dimension (U = 4281, p = 0.002, r = 172) and significantly lower level of negative SWB dimension (U = 2835, p = 0.000, r = 424) in the group of male high school students with self-reported good health status in comparison to female high school students. Parents should be involved in the selection of their children's leisure time activities, so it should not have only the sedentary character but also sport leisure time activities, mainly among young girls.
Marco Obetko, Pavol Peráček, Peter Šagát and Martin Mikulič
The soccer goalkeeper's reaction speed to stimulus is essential for the overall success rate of goalkeepers in soccer. Our research was aimed at finding out the impact of age and agility performance level on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of elite goalkeepers in Slovakia. The research group was comprised of 24 goalkeepers of two Slovak soccer clubs (in group A were elite players and in group B sub-elite players). To gain the research data, the disjunctive reaction time was measured using the Fitro Agility Check device. The acquired results were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U-Test and Cohen's “d”. The impact of age (n.s) and performance level (n.s) on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of goalkeepers was not statistically confirmed. However, the substantive and logical significance showed that the best goalkeepers achieved a considerably shorter time of disjunctive reaction time to the set stimulus (difference – 20 %).
Playing is a pleasure for every child with no exception to the children who have physical disorder and their capability of motion is limited. Children with hearing impairment need appropriate motivation for learning and performing physical activities. This motivation affects also their Physical Education. For students with the hearing impairment, the materials that are supposed to be taught during the physical education lessons are divided according to the level of disability. Under these circumstances, the research is conducted to determine the relationship between the motivation to learn during the Physical Education lessons and the academic achievement among students with hearing impairment. Researchers used traditional Quantitative methods of research with 40 Junior High School students with hearing impairment from Indonesia, Sekolah Menengah Pertama Luar Biasa (SMPLB), category B. We used the questionnaire dealing with learning motivation of children to collect the data. The data were processed using the SPSS and analyzed by descriptive quantitative operations. Results of the study showed, that there is a relationship between learning motivation of Physical Education and learning outcomes of Physical Education among students of Category B SMPLB, where the value of 0,000 is less than 0.05.