The first verses of Genesis have been translated into Swedish and many other languages several times and in quite different ways. The variations presuppose correspondingly distinct images of the very first moments of creation and, in consequence, different spatial coordinates. The article examines the linguistic ground of some of the images, asking questions on the translators’ own creative contribution to our understanding of the Bible. The Swedish monumental Bibel 2000 is the outgoing point of the analysis.
The present paper focuses on some frequent Swedish thank formulas that do not seem to fit the pattern of thanking - either syntactically or semantically. One example of the syntactic irregularities is tack för senast, ‘thanks for last time’ (lit. ‘thanks for lastADV’), where the prepositional phrase consists of an adverbial (not a nominal) component relating to time. On the other hand, the Swedish tack för mig, ‘thanks for me / myself’, does not conform to the semantics of thanking, as it seems to suggest that the speaker himself is the only proper reason for thanking, not - as usually expected - ‘something good’ for the speaker, i.e. an action brought about for him or her by the addressee. Some similarities with the Polish phrases for thanking (which also include adverbs but are fewer and less frequent in comparison Swedish), e.g. dziękuję za dziś, ‘thanks for today’, have also been taken into consideration. Such constructions can be analysed and explained in terms of metonymy. Furthermore, the thank formulas including the temporal adverbs seem to reflect the significance of time as a special value in the Swedish culture.
The paper is a brief study of the Danish expression lavær! (lad være). The author presents the expression’s origin and makes comments regarding lavær-related problems of orthographic, phonetic and semantic nature. The paper is concluded with remarks concerning the expression’s grammatical and syntactic status.
This paper aims to describe the origin of the Lithuanian discontinuatives nebe- / jau nebe- ‘no more, no longer’. In van der Auwera’s terms they represent the so-called ‘still’ discontinuatives, i.e. they consist of a continuative morpheme -be- and negation ne-. In Old Lithuanian texts (16th century) their productivity is strictly connected to the area of Lithuania Minor (former East Prussia). Both variants (i.e. nebe- / jau nebe- ‘no more, no longer’) have structural counterparts in German, which seems to suggest that nebe- and jau nebe- have come into being under influence of German.
The article explores two aspects of translations of Nordic children’s literature, which is more and more often defined by its authors as aimed at all readerships with no respect to age (allålderslitteratur). This stance may affect the theory of translation in reference to the category of the implied reader, which will have to be reconsidered. The concept of all-age literature is presented in the article as a solution to long academic discussions about the presence of an adult implied reader of children’s literature. The other perspective shows the presence of Scandinavian picturebooks on the Polish book market which have been published within the latest decade (e.g. by Svein Nyhus, Gro Dahle, Pernilla Stalfelt, Pija Lindenbaum, and Ulf Nilsson). These books are brave, taboo-breaking and translated without purifications, which refutes Elżbieta Zarych’s (2016) observations about the rules and mechanisms which are prevalent, i.e. that translators are still expected to mitigate and omit painful moments. The final part combines two aspects - the above-mentioned translations are free of adaptations, but it is difficult to assess whether the translators have taken into account the postulates of Scandinavian authors and their ambition to create all-age literature. Answers to the questions posed at the end (e.g. if the books are created for all, should they be translated for all?) might complete the translation studies with important and future-oriented insights.
No natural language can enjoy the status of a completely isolated language. This is due to their always being in some kind of contact condition with other natural languages. As they all occur in the Natural Language Global Arena, they may either win, lose in competition with other languages, or receive the equal status. The different ‘statuses’ of natural languages are owed to the feeding and seeding processes in which they participate. The said processes are framed by the communication orders in which the particular natural languages happen to function. In turn, the communication orders in which the languages are functioning, appear to be decisive in either strengthening or weakening the robustness of every natural language in their sustainability.
The paper is an attempt at presenting stereotypes describing the Danish language as one that is unpleasant to listen to and hard to learn as well as analyzing linguistic facts and research findings that may prove the mentioned stereotypes right or wrong. The first part of the paper is therefore based on research within travel literature, while the second part focuses on linguistic data and research within the areas of Polish and Danish grammar (phonetics and phonology in particular) and language acquisition.
The article offers a concise overview of diminution in Norwegian. Diminutives belong to the domain of evaluation and are produced by means of various derivational processes that are studied under the label ‘evaluative morphology’ (Körtvélyessy, 2015). Some languages exhibit elaborated systems of evaluative markers (e.g. Polish, Italian or Dutch), whereas other (Norwegian, Swedish or Danish) have weak evaluative morphology. The article explores the possibilities for prefixal and suffixal diminutive derivation in Norwegian and discusses the semantics of evaluative morphology with reference to the works by Jurafsky (1996) and Dressler/Merlini Barberesi (1994). Periphrasis, a diminutivizing device in Norwegian that requires further study, is briefly mentioned.
The article discusses possessive adjectives in Polish (derived from nouns and used to mark possession), their structure and functional scope as well as diachrony, and contrasts them with similar formations in Swedish. Adjectives derived from names and surnames are a marginal phenomenon in the Scandinavian languages and as such absent from most grammatical descriptions; their scope of use is limited. However, a comparison with Polish allows a new perspective on these adjectives in Polish as an alternative possessiva structure. The analysis is based on corpora search of Polish and Swedish texts.
The article is an investigation into strategies applied when translating Danish sentences with the directional adverb ud into Polish. The analyzed material consists of three different translations of a selection of H.C. Andersen’s fairytales into Polish, i.e. Cecylia Niewiadomska’s (1908), Stefania Beylin and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz’s (1975) and Bogusława Sochanska’s (2006). The analysis is mainly focused on the Polish equivalents of Danish sentences with the directional adverb ud. However, since only Sochanska’s translation is a direct translation from Danish into Polish (the remaining ones are translations via German) the article’s analytical part also includes a comparison of strategies applied by the individual translators. Lastly, some comments are made with regards to the semantic status of the Danish directional adverb ud and its Polish equivalents.