In 2001 Algerian Governmental created Sport High School (HSA). Its main mission is education, training and development of young talents by providing all the conditions to serve their healthy sports path. Firstly, by intensifying their daily sports as school-based health education program designed to improve their physical status relates to their healthy lifestyle. Disclosed by evaluation tool design to detect their physical abilities as well as their longitudinal followings. Used in present as evaluation scale to inspect imprudence related to the objectives of Algerian public schools (HPA). For proposing this comparative study test 1 000 High School student, 800 boys and 200 girls for academic years 2017 – 2018. The evaluation focused on measuring anthropometric parameters - age, weight, height and BMI as well as physical qualities - speed (30 m), the explosive force vertical (VJ), explosive force of the arms (medicine ball throw 3 kg (MB), flexibility trunk (FT)), endurance abdominal muscles (maximum of <4 sit-ups > in one minute (EAM) and aerobic endurance (20m shuttle test (VO2max)). Controlled by rating scales produced by Iaiche Rezoug. Based on the scale provided by this latter, our results proclaims the generalization of perspectives implemented in Algerian Sport High School as school-based physical health education program designed to reduce the consequences of overweight on health-related to physical performance. Estimated by rating scales produced by Iaiche Rezoug, which could serve as a model database refining the impact of the two Algerian educational systems, as an approach suggesting a clear direction for the development of adequate programs for the larger populations of Algerian scholars.
Numerous academic and practitioner research has examined the role of Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in the development of sport coaches in the UK (e.g. Crisp 2018; Stoszkowski and Collins 2018). However, whilst most fields related to coach development have significant bodies of work underpinning them, there is a dearth of information related to best practice within the context of disability sport coaching. Given that both coach learning in the HEI context and disability sports coaching are significant areas worthy of further exploration, this work investigates how learning can be developed through disability sport coaching in the HEI context. The aims of this study were to gather the perceptions, thoughts, and experiences of ten student-coaches enrolled on an HEI coaching programme who were completing a year long placement module that included sessions for participants with disabilities. Data were collected through two focus group meetings with the student-coaches and the submission of learning journals. Inductive analysis showed that coaching disability groups facilitated learning through generating knowledge from practice through a process of reflection, higher order thinking, and meta-cognition. This suggests that using disability coaching can be a useful tool for HEIs to use in terms of challenging student-coach practice and education.
The objective of the study is to design a specialized training program in modern weighting methods for under-21 soccer players to develop muscular strength and to identify the effect of the training program on weighting exercises on some physiological variables (some aerobic and anaerobic abilities such as VO2max heartbeat and backstage). Researchers in this study that weight training for soccer players will have a clear impact on both the development of muscle capacity and improve some functional abilities. The experimental method was used to design two samples, a experimental sample and a control sample of under-21 soccer players who were selected by a team of Mustaganem teams. Each sample consisted of 18 players. The experimental sample was applied to the weight and control program. For four months. The study showed that the experimental sample achieved a significant increase in muscle strength measurements as well as some physiological variables in all measured tests compared to the control sample. This is the result of the proposed training program applied to the experimental sample.
Nikolas Nagy, Miroslav Holienka, Matej Babic, Jakub Michálek and Egon Kunzmann
The aim of this research was to make reference to the difference in heart rate values (HR) of soccer players in small-sided games (SSG) with various content focus. We assumed that the aim at the content in small-sided games would significantly affect the HR values of participating soccer players. The research group was comprised of players (n = 6) of the soccer club FK DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda (U15) at the age of 14 ± 0.7 years. The HR values were evaluated on the basis of collected data, which we obtained using sport testers and special software POLAR TEAM2. In order to find out the statistical significance of the difference in HR was used the One-Way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 %. We found out that by the change of the small-sided game’s content focus, the internal reaction of players’ organism to training load was at different level. In the SSG3, with the emphasis on the improvement of individual’s final offensive game activity – shooting, was recorded the highest achieved HRavg value of the monitored players (181.83 ±7.11 beats.min−1). This form of the SSG was the most intense. However, there were no significant differences in HR values among the individual forms of the SSG. Our recommendation is to employ in the systematic training process small forms of small-sided games with various content focus, because by the means of it we can adequately prepare the players for the match load itself.
The text deals with neurophysiological and kinesiological developmental principles associated with the early development of young children as the fundamental prerequisites for physical education in the aquatic environment. Swimming in infancy and early childhood using the developmental principles and understanding of individual variability represent enormous potential to create a positive attitude of the child to exercise in aquatic environments. We believe that the experience with these basic tasks can play a key role in future exercise habits and swimming literacy of the individual. Parents attending infant swimming courses led by an instructor acquire practical skills and deeper insight into principles of their child's motor learning. All activities in the aquatic environment at an early age should allow transfer of child’s experiences to preswimming education and result in full swimming literacy.
Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) has become an independent sport discipline with its own distinctive aspects. It can no longer be perceived as before, as a compilation of other martial arts. MMA shows originality in training methods, health aspects, performance requirements or even moral-volitional qualities. The aim of the paper is to analyse the physiological aspects of MMA in both training and combat loads, to discuss the issue of injuries in MMA and to provide a comparison with other martial arts. Studies focusing directly on MMA wrestlers have been selected. These have included both amateur and professional athletes. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scholar were used as sources. MMA ranks among sports with high-intensity workload, wrestlers achieve high levels of lactate and other metabolic markers. They need above-average aerobic capacity and perform well in upper body strength tests. Injury rates in MMA do not differ significantly from those in professional-level martial arts. Most injuries are associated with lacerations on the head. The requirements of extensive workload during performance must be reflected in training. Encouragement of aerobic and anaerobic endurance abilities in conjunction with optimum strength training seems crucial. It is essential to include prophylaxis as regards head concussions and strive for maximum safety of the sportsman during combat. Further research is required to confirm some of the conclusions, the limitations of which are due to the number and quality of the selected studies.
Elena Bendíková, Michal Marko, Anetta Müller and Éva Bácsné Bába
The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the health-oriented exercises included in the final part of the physical and sport education on the selected factors of the musculoskeletal system of the female students of the selected secondary school, as well as to point out the diversification and the realization of the innovative contents of the teaching lessons with the health aspect, especially from the point of view of the primary prevention of the female students’ health of secondary school, improving the level of the posture and the overall muscular system. The monitored group consisted of 33 female students of the selected secondary school in Trenčín (Slovakia). The experimental group (EG) A consisted of 17 female students (age = 16.9 ± 1.3 years, height = 168.6 ± 3.9 cm, weight = 57.3 ± 3.4 kg) and the control group (CG) B consisted of 16 female students (age = 16.3 ± 1.1 years, height = 167.3 ± 4.7 cm, weight = 58.9 ± 4.8 kg). From the point of view of the data acquisition methods, in initial, ongoing and final evaluations were applied standardized methods for assessing the posture and the muscular system for physical and medical practice. Subsequently, the applied health-oriented exercises were used in the final part of the physical and sport education for 3 months, 3 times per week, for the duration of 12 minutes. The results significantly showed the improvement of the monitored musculoskeletal system (p < 0.01), as well as the overall muscular system (p < 0.01). Based on the findings, we point out the suitability of including the health-oriented exercises in the teaching process of the physical and sport education with the focus on the musculoskeletal system. This study was supported by VEGA 1/0242/17 Physical activity as prevention of functional disorders related to the musculoskeletal system of secondary school students.
Martin Vaváček, Anton Lednický and Kristína Hajduová
The authors focused on biomechanical analysis of the exercising shapes of the compulsory exercises in the equestrian vaulting. It is a sport sector in which similar observations have not been carried out. The use of 3D analysis brought the opportunity to observe the exercising shapes on a simulator and in real conditions on a horse. By the selected 3D approach they focused on three crucial phases of the swing back. This approach helped detect possible mistakes which the coach could not register from one position. The experimental set consisted of highly accomplished riders. The results confirmed that the higher the accomplishment level of a sportsman the fewer are the differences between the performances of an exercising shape. From the above mentioned we could assume that by including exercises on a barrel simulator into training units, we could influence the technique of performance of the individual exercising shapes on a horse in movement.
Stanislav Kraček, Dagmar Nemček, Petra Kurková, Wioletta Lubkowska and Šimon Tomáš
The aim of the study was to analyse and compare the level of selected coordination abilities of pupils with communication ability disorder (CAD) and able-bodied pupils in the same age category. Two groups of participants were recruited for the study: (1) pupils attending special elementary school for children with CAD (n = 17; 5 girls and 12 boys in mean age 11.2 ± 0.7 years), (2) and ablebodied pupils (n = 20; 12 girls and 8 boys in mean age 11.4 ± 0.5 years) without gender differentiation. 5 standardised tests measuring coordination abilities were used as a primary research method (Šimonek 2015): low jump test, spatial orientation ability test, circles through running test, one leg stand test, catching ball test. Group differences were analysed with Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. The level of significance was α < 0.05. We found significantly higher level of spatial orientation ability and static balance displayed by able-bodied pupils comparing pupils with CAD. The level of lower limb kinaesthetic discrimination ability, rhythmic ability, frequency and reaction time in pupils with CAD are comparable to the level of able-bodied pupils. We recommend that children with CAD should participate in regular physical activities and sports after compulsory education together with able-bodied children to improve their fine and gross motor ability, coordination abilities as well as overall physical fitness.
The ability to perform the stable playing performance during the whole match to larger extent depends on sufficient level of development of conditioning abilities. Technique of playing activities of an individual, decision-making process of players and especially speed of the game are influenced by already mentioned abilities. The aim of our study was to recognize the level of motor performance in regional centres of handball and at the same time to verify the efficiency of sports preparation. This programme includes the change of weekly microcycle practice, consisting of 2 conditioning trainings focused on strength and endurance. The research was realized in these age categories: younger (n=40) and older juniors (n=38). To evaluate the level of motor abilities we selected 5 simply performed activities: bench press (explosive strength of upper extremities ), run for 8x5 metres (speed with change of direction), sit-ups for 2 minutes (power of abdominal muscles), standing long jump with legs together (explosive strength of lower extremities) and 12 minutes run (aerobic endurance). When following microcycle programme weekly, the results of motor test pointed out the positive influence of this programme on the development of strength and aerobic endurance (p≤0.05). In category of older juniors the performance in test of 12 minutes run has fallen significantly in comparison with the first testing (p≤0.05). The result of this study indicates the lack of recommended aerobic running practice in weekly microcycles of monitored teams.