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Conceptualisation of Self-Education for Healthy Life Style: From Satisfaction of Psychological Needs to Implementation of Life Objectives

Abstract

The descriptive conceptual analysis-based article aims to substantiate the construct of person’s self-education for healthy life. So why the research question in the following: How is conceptualised the person’s selfdevelopment for a healthy lifestyle in the Self-Determination Theory on the basis of the natural psychological needs of the person, motivated and pursued by the theory?

Personal self-education in the education science is associated with a modern, dynamic and holistic educational concept, which implies a life-long process of human development and an individual path. By planning, organizing, managing and controlling the process of personal development, a person takes responsibility for the direction, goals, ways and final result of self-education. A healthy lifestyle as a kind of self-education fulfills the conditions of holistic development and contains physical, mental, social, spiritual self-education. In conceptualizing a person’s self-education for a healthy lifestyle, it is best to refer to the intrapersonal health education theories. These theories emphasize the influence of environmental and social factors on a person’s lifestyle, and the person’s knowledge, skills, motivation, attitudes and free determination to change oneself and his/her lifestyle.

The Self-Determination Theory reveals the trends of personal development and calls it eudaimony or a path of life based on the satisfaction of general personal psychological needs - autonomy, competence and conenction, as well as the pursuit of inner goals and universally recognized values. Realized and satisfied natural psychological needs encourage person’s inner energy, internal motivation associated with person’s native inclination for development. In pursuit of personal development and health-oriented goals, a person finds a sense of meaning in his or her activity and experiences a state of well-being.

Open access
Family and Career Reconciliation: Family, Employer and Career Counsellor Perspectives

Abstract

The discussions about work and family reconciliation have revealed the fact that it is essential to talk about division of roles and agreements in the family, the skills important for career management, “here and now” search for the solutions to various problematic situations, flexibility and ability to get involved in work activity at the same time respecting family needs. Seeking reconciliation of family and career, family needs have been linked to positive parenthood and at the same time work tendencies and career opportunities have been estimated. Here we face some obstacles which are common to the aspiration of harmony and satisfaction in family, work or while developing career opportunities. The goal of this empirical study – to discuss common grounds and distinguish needs and challenges of young families, employers and career counsellors for successful reconciliation of family and career. A qualitative research included narratives of young parents, interviews with employers and a focus group interview with career counsellors. The data received from the narrative has been interpreted according to thematic analysis method and the interview data of focus group has been presented by dividing the data into categories and subcategories. Results have demonstrated that young parents’ experiences intertwine with employers’ experiences in some cases while career counsellors are expected to provide guidance and support to facilitate the potential conflict although there are still gaps in this service provision.

Open access
Leadership Values and Values Based Leadership: What is the Main Focus?

Abstract

The article is based on descriptive theoretical research and focused on two notions such as ‘leadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’. These two concepts are not compared, but every of them is described separately by highlighting general characteristics and showing their broad complexity. Both notions are not related to ethics and / or morality, as the aim the literature review was to provide insights on leadership values and values based leadership. The research question was the following: What aspects include two concepts such as ‘leadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’? Fourteen leadership values are provided and in the summary the three unifying aspects are presented and discussed – personality, interaction(s) and relationship(s), and action(s) / work. The common and flexible leadership values are presented. Values based leadership is discussed generally and four principles of this leadership are distinguished – self-reflection, balance, true self-confidence, and genuine humility. Also positive and limiting values based leadership shortly is discussed. The conclusion is focused on the idea that the leader needs to regain and maintain trust. Positive values based leadership goes beyond leveraging strengths and making meaning. Values based leaders who engage their employees and help them flourish in life. And for their organisations they boost productivity, creativity and financial returns. Leading and evaluating success based on values is the best way to build a high-performance culture in organisation.

Open access
The Peculiarities of the Use of Information Communication Technologies in Foreign Language Teaching/Learning Process

Abstract

In our contemporary society the use of Information and Communications Technologies is an inseperable part of everyday life. Information and Communications Technologies can be of great benefit in learning foreign languages for both the learner and the teacher alike. As in every change that tends to happen gradually yet unnoticeably, there are the advantages and the downsides that cannot be overlooked nor ignored. Information and Communications Technologies when incorporated in education also unavoidably has these dichotomous variables. What are these variables in the implementation of Information and Communications Technologies in education and do the positive factors outweigh the negative ones? The object of the research is the use of information communication technologies in foreign language lessons. The aim of the research is to reveal the peculiarities of using information communication technologies in the teaching of foreign languages. Research questions in this study are the following: What peculiarities of using information communication technologies arise in the process of teaching foreign languages in high school classes? How is the use of information communication technologies influenced by the age of the learners? What Information Communication Technologies are used in foreign language lessons? Findings showed that the self-perception, help to clients, professional ethics, trust are the components of professional responsibilities in the daily professional practices of social workers and social pedagogues. Realizing and accepting the fact that Information and Communications Technologies and Information Technology in general have become a part of our everyday life, one cannot ignore the importance of it in the field of education. Systematic evaluation of the implementation of Information and Communications Technologies in education in order to assure its effectiveness as a tool that acts as an aid for not only the pupils but also the teachers should become a normal part of the educational system. It should be viewed as a means of improving the lesson and as a means of support for those pupils who are in serious need of it.

Open access
Relations Among Poor Sleep, Anxiety and Depression Among the Students of Health Sciences

Abstract

The research in the area of health sciences students’ sleep quality and mood disorders is lacking in Lithuania, as well as other European countries. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence of poor sleep, anxiety and depression among the students according to the study programmes and to assess the relations among poor sleep, depression and anxiety. The study sample consisted of 672 Klaipeda State University of Applied Sciences students (95.5% were female), from 18 to 46 years of age. Sleep quality was evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, anxiety by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, sociodemographic questions were used. The chi-square test or Fisher exact test was used to estimate association between categorical variables. P-values less than 0.05 were interpreted as statistically significant. Poor sleep was more prevalent among Beauty Therapy (26.4%, 95% CI 22.2-30.56) and Nursing (21.3%, 95% CI 17.42 – 25.17) students, as compared with persons studying in Oral Health programmes (14.8%, 95% CI 11.46 – 18.17), p<0.05. Depression mean score was higher in Beauty Therapy students (4.76), as compared to Oral Health (3.69) students, p<0.05. Beauty Therapy (9.99) or Physiotherapy students (8.24) had higher anxiety mean score, as compared to Oral Health students (7.14), p<0.05. Anxiety mean score was significantly higher (8.45) among the ones with disturbed sleep, as compared to normally sleeping students (5.86), p<0.001. Depression mean score (4.77) was higher among the students having disturbed sleep, as compared to the students which sleep was not disturbed (2.87), p<0.001. Poor sleep and anxiety were more prevalent among the students aged 20 years and older as compared to the students, aged 18 and 19 years. Second and third year students more often had poor sleep or anxiety as compared to the first-year students. Poor sleep and anxiety were more common among Beauty Therapy and Physiotherapy students than among Oral Health Students. Among the students who slept poorly, symptoms of anxiety and depression were statistically significantly more frequent than those students whose sleep was not disturbed. Depression and anxiety mean scores were statistically significantly higher among the students who had poor sleep, as compared to the ones who had normal sleep, in all age and year of studying groups.

Open access
Self-Directed Later Life Learning: Individual and Social Contexts

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate how self-directed later life learning is utilized and interpreted by older adults in their particular environments. The following questions were raised: What are the opportunities for older adults’ engagement in self-directed learning in their environments? How older adults realize their self-directed learning in response to the opportunities provided by their environments? Thematic analysis was used as research method to analyse participants’ experiences and meanings they attribute to self-directed learning in their actual environments. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 older adults engaged in their self-directed learning pursuits. The findings from the study showed that older adults’ engagement in generativity-based activities, interest-based activities and social networks are contexts of self-directed learning in later life; these contexts support older adults’ self-directed learning by providing learning impetus, opportunities and resources; realization of self-directed learning is influenced by ageing-related changes and individual circumstances of older adults.

Open access
Health Literacy of a Sample of Portuguese Elderly

Abstract

This article presents the results of a study developed within the scope of the Project Health Literacy: a challenge in and for the elderly, funded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. It tried to evaluate the metric qualities of the Newest Vital Sign Test (NVS, Copyright © Pfizer Inc.) applied to elderly; evaluate the degree of health literacy of a sample of elderly Portuguese people; get to know the association between the degree of health literacy and some sociodemographic features, the general health state, and quality of life. It was conducted a quantitative study with 433 adults over 65 years of age, mostly female, and with heterogeneous levels of education. The instrument used was a battery of tests in order to assess the degree of health literacy (Newest Vital Sign), and the quality of life (WHOQOL). The NVS proved to be a reliable and sensitive to changes due to various demographic characteristics instrument. The results indicate that the majority of the participants (80%) showed a level of low health literacy, meaning that only 20% of respondents will be able to interpret and use effectively information related with health. Gender, educational attainment, age and marital status, as well as the perception of the elderly on their general health state and quality of life, proved to be variables that affect significantly the level of health literacy of participants. These results point to the urgent need to enhance health literacy in the elderly population, in general, and among the most vulnerable groups, in particular.

Open access