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Self-image and selected clinical variables in the context of childhood abuse in subjects with alcohol dependence


Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the differences in selected clinical variables and self-image in people with alcohol dependence differing in severity of physical, emotional and sexual abuse experienced before age 18.

Method: The study included 90 people with alcohol dependence. The following research tools were used: Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), Adjective Check List (ACL), MAST, SAAD, and a questionnaire designed by the authors. In order to identify groups with varying indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse, a cluster analysis method was used.

Results: Two groups of subjects with alcohol dependence were identified: Group 1 with high indices of physical, emotional and sexual childhood abuse and Group 2 with low indices. In terms of self-image the subjects in Group 1 compared to subjects in Group 2 were characterized by a lower self-esteem, self-acceptance, resistance to stress, less intense needs for achievement, endurance, order, nurturing others, interaction with opposite-sex partners, subordinations but more intense need for change. The age of alcohol use initiation and the onset of regular alcohol drinking was statistically significantly lower in Group 1. The severity of alcohol dependence was significantly lower in Group 2. The subjects in Group 1 significantly more frequently confirmed the history of a hereditary predisposition to alcohol dependence, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and self-harm.

Discussion: The obtained results closely correspond to the data available in the literature.

Conclusions: An assessment of exposure to various forms of childhood abuse appears to be an indispensable element of collecting medical history of people with alcohol dependence.

Open access
Dénes Szabó (1856-1918), the Clinic-founder Professor of Gynecology, A Centennial Commemoration


Dénes Szabó (1856–1918) was the second professor of obstetrics and gynecology of the Franz Joseph University from Kolozsvár (Cluj). This is a centennial commemoration. Szabó was born in the family of a great geologist professor at Pest. He studied at the University from Budapest and Strasbourg. He took his doctor’s degree is 1879. He spent a year with medical studies in foreign countries. In 1881 he became assistant to Professor Tivadar Kézmárszky, head of the Gynecological Clinic No. I. from Budapest. He was qualified as private lecturer in gynecology in 1888. In this period he published a lot of studies and review articles in the weekly medical papers Orvosi Hetilap and Gyógyászat. The Kolozsvár professor of obstetrics János Maizner in 1892 got retired. As a result of a competition Szabó was appointed professor of both obstetrics and gynecology. Until 1899 he worked in very poor conditions in a suburb building. Then the new 2 floor hospital from Mikó Street was built, where there were separate sections for obstetrics and gynecology. There he could also train midwives during 5 month courses. He became member of the Medical section of Transylvanian Museum Society, from 1894 up to 1912 he was the editor of its review journal (Értesítő...). Most of his studies were published there. The Medical Faculty elected him three times dean, in 1905/6 he was the rector of the university. He published around 65 studies. Some of them discuss deontological problems or deal with medical history. He was one of the editors of two memorial volumes, one dedicated to Professor Purjesz (1906), the other to Professor Lechner (1915). He compiled the first history of the Medical Faculty in 1896. He was also one of the editors of the monographic album of the Kolozsvár University from 1903. Five of its chapters were written by him. He was awarded with the title of Court Counselor. During WWI he did much for the medical care of wounded soldiers, so he got military awards, too. A number of medical and civil associations elected him president. He died because of gastric cancer at a Budapest hospital. According to his final wish he was buried in the Házsongárd Cemetery

Open access
Diagnosis and Construction of Speech Coherence Disorders in Schizophasia


Introduction: Language disorders defined as schizophasia are one of the key symptoms of schizophrenia, especially in the disorganized form of this psychosis, which is reflected in the description of “loose associations” as one of the core negative symptoms according to P. E. Bleuler. At present, the disruption of text at the level of discourse coherence and syntactic impoverishment at the sentence level are regarded as the linguistic basis of schizophasia. The most often applied tool for clinical assessment of schizophasia is the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) devised by N. Andreasen.

Objective: The paper presents language samples of patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high intensity of schizophasia, but above all, text samples created by speech therapy students, which were supposed to simulate the language pathology of the sick. The aim of the study was to compare these two corps of the text in order to assess how classes on schizophasia affect the understanding of specific language phenomena in the field of text coherence disorders, such as derailment, incoherence, distractible speech, loss of goal.


1. Text body obtained from two patients suffering from schizophrenia with a high level of schizophasia.

2. Corpus of the text constructed by two students of speech therapy, during academic classes on schizophasia.

Results: This study presents specimens of speech by schizophrenic patients with a high intensity of schizophasia, but first of all text specimens authored by logopedics students, which were intended to simulate the language pathology of patients suffering from schizophasia.

Conclusions: The essence of schizophasic language disorders is apparently the disorders of text coherence at the pragmatic, semantic and syntactic levels. The presented schizophasic utterances constructed by logopedics students are very similar to genuine specimens of schizophasic speech – they are proof of the understanding of what schizophasia is. We may hope that the presentation of language disorders from the texts spoken by patients with schizophrenia, and then the attempt to construct analogous utterances, is conducive to better understanding of the essence of schizophasia, i.e. the disruption of text at the level of building the whole utterance but also at the sentence (phrase) level in the form of syntactic impoverishment.

Open access
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence Level on The Depression Vulnerability


Introduction: Recently the issue of emotional intelligence has become a widespread theme of discussion. This review paper is made a contribution to this debate. Discovering of effective predictive and protective factors for depression would have far-reaching consequences for society, science and economy.

Material and Methods: To investigate this issue, we searched articles available in the Google Scholar and PudMed databases under the following terms: emotional intelligence, depression, emotional intelligence and depression for the years 1999-2019. Accessible literature allowed to show basic information of emotional intelligence, detect a system of relationships between emotional intelligence level and depression, and present recommendations.

Results and Discussion: The result of this analysis is a statement that all components of emotional intelligence can be a defense against depression. People with high abilities in regulation their own emotions have large social support, what protect them against depression. The capable managing one’s own and others’ emotions create large and deep interpersonal relationships, what provide more emotional support and tangible assistance during everyday challenges. Stressful life events are among the most powerful predictors of depression, and high level of emotional intelligence enable to cope with them more effectively.

Conclusions: The present text will constitute an impulse to explore this theme more. Moreover, there is a recommendation for researchers to create more effective and simplified tests for examining the level of emotional intelligence in case of spreading them much more and use them in a routine psychiatric practice. A confirmation of the title hypothesis can stand a key to struggle with depression.

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The influence of metacognitive training on the improvement of working memory in children with ADHD


The purpose of the study is to check whether the memory will be strengthened after three months of metacognitive training using such mnemonic techniques as Mind Maps and Sketchnoting in children diagnosed with ADHD. According to the most recent, the Fifth Edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, working memory plays a key role both in the symptoms of ADHD and in secondary problems such as: learning disorders, professional or social difficulties.

Method: 45 schoolchildren took part in the experimental study (M=1,42; SD = 10,41;). .Each child had a diagnosed psychomotor overexcitability and attention disorders. The participants were randomly qualified into three groups: the first group was tested for the effect of Mind Maps; the second group, for the effect of Sketchnoting while the third group was assigned the role of a control group. All of the groups were administered The Deferred Naming Test before and after the training. This assessment method belongs to the PU-1 Set of Diagnostic Tests.

Results: The working memory improved in each of the three groups. The smallest number of errors were made by the children in the group with Mind Maps, while the biggest number of errors were made by the children in the control group.

Conclusion: Mind Maps can be an important complement to other forms of therapeutic treatment for children with ADHD diagnosis. Regular use of this tool in education or therapy strengthens the memory. The improvement of this executive function can be substantial in learning to write and read (memorization of the correct shapes of letters), remembering and recalling from memory the rules agreed with the child or better time orientation.

Open access
Mental and behavioral disorders in the population of homeless patients admitted to hospital emergency departments


The aim of the study is to identify the most common mental and behavioral disorders diagnosed in homeless patients admitted to hospital emergency departments and to identify performed medical procedures including diagnostic and therapeutic measures in this range.

Material and Method:Data from information systems of three hospitals concerning stays of homeless people in ED in Bydgoszcz in 2013-2015 were analyzed. As any as 3133 stays were identified. The data was compiled using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and Statistica 10 statistical software package.

Results: Diagnoses in the category of mental disorders and behavioral disorders constituted 23.3% of diagnoses made in the studied population, of which two thirds were psychiatric disorders and behavioral disorders caused by alcohol use. Specific personality disorders (5.84%), schizophrenia (3.82%), and mild mental retardation (2.24%) were diagnosed in patients. One tenth of all the ICD-9 procedures performed were the procedures of the category 94- Procedures related to mental condition

Conclusions: Mental and behavioral disorders are one of the main reasons for admission of homeless people to hospital emergency departments. Most diseases is diagnosed in facilities where psychiatric consultation is possible, as well as where the number of procedures related to mental condition performed is the highest. Homeless patients suffering from mental and behavioral disorders are rarely admitted to hospital wards for hospitalization. Psychiatric care for homeless patients admitted to emergency departments is an ad hoc intervention and depends on the availability of a psychiatrist. Providing homeless patients with access to a psychiatric diagnosis at ED level would affect the quality of psychiatric care and would contribute to the improvement of mental health of homeless people.

Open access
Wendigo Psychosis


Introduction: Wendigo psychosis is considered an endemic psychiatric disorder associated with culture. It manifests through compulsive, strong attacks of cannibalistic behaviors. It mainly concerns Algonquian: Cree tribes and people living in the Northern Ojibwa area.

Material and methods: In our article, we have collected available publications on Wendigo’s psychosis. This area included Internet databases: PubMed and Google Scholar, from the first reports on the disease to the latest information. Due to culture-bound syndromes and the rarity of occurrence in the present time at work, we focused not only on symptoms, treatment or diagnosis, but also on historical and ethnographic features.

Discussion: The first remarks on this disorder derive from the Powhatan dictionary which was used by the Algonquian tribe. In the 1960s there were 70 cases of the disease, but the available epidemiologic data is poor. There are many legends about the mythical creature Wendigo and its likeness is repeatedly used in popular culture. Most of the symptoms exhibited by those suffering from this dysfunction is related to famine and chronic loneliness, e.g. apathy, neurosis.

Summary: The treatment of the psychosis in the past was based on folk beliefs, as well as homicide. Modern medicine offers a wide spectrum of antipsychotic drugs whose use is focused on the elimination of side effects. Pharmacotherapy consists in administering to the sick drugs from the group of benzodiazepines or antipsychotic agents of both the first and the second generation.

Open access
Aluminium contamination of several types of tea


Introduction: Camellia sinensis, a widely used plant, optimally grows in a low pH soil that in most cases contains high amounts of aluminum. Objectives: The aluminum content of the tea obtained from Camellia sinensis and other plants was compared. The influence of pH on the aluminum content of the tea was also measured. Materials and methods: The aluminum content of 48 samples was measured using a colorimetric method. The method is based on the ability of aluminum to form a stable complex with xylenol orange at low pH; this complex has an absorption maximum of 555 nm. Results: The method was validated for tea obtained with water and for tea obtained with water containing citric acid. The method proved linear over the rage of 0.7 – 7 ug/ml, coefficient of variation ranged between 2.6 – 7.68% (was dependent on the pH of the solution used to obtain the tea), accuracy was suitable for quantitative measurement (92.39-102.92%) and the complex proved to be stable for at least 1 hour. The following concentrations were measured: green tea (1.59 - 7.70 µg/ml), black tea (1.39 - 5.60 µg/ml), fruit tea (1.01 - 5.63 µg/ml) and herbal tea (1.03 - 5.24 µg/ml). Conclusion: The method proved useful and easily applicable for screening aluminum content of plants used for tea brewing. Camellia sinensis both green and black types had significantly higher aluminum contents than other type of teas. Adding citric acid, as would result from use of lemon juice, significantly increased the aluminum extraction from the plants used for tea brewing.

Open access
Chemical and pharmacological characterization of triptans


Triptans are specific drugs for migraine attack, their use leads to selective vasoconstriction, while the inflammatory condition that usually occurs during migraine is reduced. The structurally indolamine derivatives are selective agonists of the serotonin 1B/1D receptor. This review presents the history, representatives, production, and physico-chemical properties of triptans, but also discusses their pharmacological properties and mechanism of action.

Open access
Determination of corticosterone from rat hair samples by HPLC-MS method


Corticosterone is an adrenocortical steroid hormone with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects. Based on previous studies, the plasma level of corticosterone correlates with the stress exposure of rodents. Because the half-life of corticosterone in blood is short, its plasma concentration can be used as an acute stress marker. But hair is accumulating the systemic and locally produced corticosterone, therefore it can be used to study chronic stress. However, the accurate quantification of corticosterone is an analytical challenge owing to the very low amount of hormone found in a complicated biological matrix. The high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) can provide the required selectivity and sensitivity for this purpose. Currently published methods for corticosterone quantification involve complicated sample preparation and long run time. Accordingly, the aims of the study were to simplify the extraction method of the corticosterone from rat hair samples and to develop an optimized HPLC-MS method for the accurate quantification. The rat hair samples were washed with methanol, dried and cut, then extracted with methanol at room temperature for 24 hours. The lipids were precipitated with formic acid aqueous solution and eliminated by centrifugation. The corticosterone was separated from other compounds with reverse phase chromatography using acetonitrile and 0,1% aqueous solution of formic acid as mobile phase. The detection was performed in positive SIM mode measuring the 347 m/z molecular ion. A six point calibration was performed in the range of 0,5-20 ng/ml, the accuracy was tested with quality control samples at two different concentration level. The total run time is only 4,2 minutes and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) is 0,5 ng/ml, with 10 pg absolute sensitivity. By determining the quantity of the hormone for a well-defined hair region, based on the speed of hair growth, we can characterize the retrospective stress exposure of the animals in different conditions.

Open access