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In vitro Callus induction of aromatic rice depends on the concentration of 2, 4-D

Abstract

Due to growing population, there is an increasing demand of rice production but its productivity is lessened day by day. Aromatic rice has a great demand during festivals in many countries. Kalijira is one of them not only Bangladesh but also all over the world due to its attractive flavor, fine grain and good taste which is generally used to prepare dishes in different special occasions. But there are some limitations to cultivate aromatic rice Such as lack of high yielding variety, fine grain quality, disease or pest resistant, stress and salt tolerance variety and proper cultural management. To overcome this problem tissue culture can be used. However, the lack of a simple and efficient protocol for callus induction in this cereal crop. In this study we tried to find out the potentiality of aromatic rice variety named kalijira for callus induction from mature embryo and to find out the suitable concentration of 2, 4-D for callus induction and proliferation. The highest callus induction were observed when the media was supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D and the frequency of callus induction was lowest in 0.5 mg/L concentration of 2, 4-D. This study will be useful for selecting suitable concentration of growth regulator (2, 4-D) for callus induction in future that will be useful for not only national but also international plant breeders.

Open access
Natural product like “shikonin” might be a hope for Breast cancer cure

Abstract

Among all cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall, both in the developed and less developed country. It is a matter of concern worldwide, that there is no effective drug is available for cancer treatment. Although, Surgery, radiation, hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy, and chemotherapy are being used for treatment of breast cancer in recent years, due to life threatening side effects, these treatment approaches becoming more vulnerable. However, researchers from across the world searching a safe and effective treatment approach that can be a breakthrough for this situation, as it is evident that natural compounds like shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can fight against aggressiveness of breast cancer by regulating apoptosis, necroptosis and estrogen receptor signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed about potential green chemical compounds with their mechanisms of actions, which can be very effective treatment regimen for breast cancer and can be more potent by their proper modifications and further molecular research. Hopefully in future, research focusing on the “shikonin” will open a new door for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients as well as cancer cure.

Open access
Optimization of fermentation condition for cellulase enzyme production from Bacillus sp.

Abstract

Cellulase is an important enzyme in present-day of industrial biotechnology. The current study is concerned with the production and partial characterization of cellulase enzyme from Bacillus sp. The effect of various fermentation conditions for cellulase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Maximum enzyme production was obtained after 24 hours of incubation in fermentation medium with pH 3.5 at 35°C under having agitation at 150 rpm while inoculums volume 1% was applied. Enzyme production was 1.91 times higher after optimizing the production condition as compared to the basal media. Cellulase characterization revealed that optimum activity was at pH 5.5 and 50°C for 50 minutes. About 68% of the activity retained after heating the crude enzyme solution at 50°C for 30 minutes. This nature makes cellulase a suitable candidate for current mainstream biomass conversions for sustainable agriculture and industrial processes.

Open access
Development of a point-of-care test to detect hepatitis B virus DNA threshold relevant for treatment indication

Abstract

Background

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been the most prevalent blood-borne pathogen wherein utero transmission has still not been properly managed. Recent practice guidelines suggested that an antiviral drug should be administered to third-trimester pregnancies with significant viremia (>2 × 105 IU/mL).

Objectives

To develop a novel turbidity-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with heat treatment DNA extraction method that is a rapid, cost-effective, and feasible viral load assessment and could be applied to antenatal screening.

Methods

Primers and reagents were designed, turbidity-based platform and heat treatment method were added, and evaluated for optimal efficiency. Assay sensitivity was tested from serially diluted standard HBV DNA. Assay specificity was tested with six standard viral DNAs. Clinical samples were analyzed and the results were compared with those of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) diagnostic records.

Results

The optimized condition was 60°C with no betaine, 1.4 mM deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and 6 mM of MgSO4 for 60 min. The assay accurately detected samples with standard HBV DNA at >2 × 105 IU/mL in both distilled water and spiked serum. Results can be interpreted within 31.48 ± 1.41 min in real-time turbidimeter. The amplification is exclusively specific to HBV, but not with the other six human-specific viruses. Moreover, the assay showed comparable performance within 95% confidence interval to the previously developed HBV LAMP toward clinical specimens.

Conclusions

This newly developed method was accurate, affordable, and flexible to further implementation to large-scale third-trimester pregnancy screening.

Open access
Evidence of growth hormone effect on plasma leptin in diet-induced obesity and diet-resistant rats

Abstract

Background

Plasma leptin is regulated by several factors, including growth hormone (GH), which influences the pathophysiology of obesity.

Objective

To demonstrate the short-term effect of GH on plasma leptin levels in 3 conditions in vivo with the different amount of body fat mass.

Methods

Adult male Wistar rats were fed with standard chow or hypercaloric diet (HC). The HC rats were demonstrated as HC-feeding obese (HC-O) and HC-feeding resistant (HC-R) rats. Then, they were treated with GH or saline for 3 days. Basal plasma leptin levels were measured at 24 and 32 h. For meal-induced condition, all rats were fed for 2 hand plasma leptin was measured. Further 16-h fasting period, plasma leptin, insulin, and insulin sensitivity indexes were determined.

Results

The short-term GH treatment decreased basal plasma leptin at 32 h after the first GH injection in HC-O rats. However, GH treatment had no effect on meal-induced plasma leptin in all rats. Furthermore, GH treatment attenuated fasting effect on plasma leptin in control and HC-R rats. The insulin resistance (IR) induced by the short-term GH treatment was demonstrated by higher fasting plasma insulin and the increased homeostasis model of IR in HC-R rats.

Conclusions

The study demonstrates the important role of greater fat mass in HC-O rats, which results in decreased basal plasma leptin after short-term GH treatment. For meal-induced condition, GH had no effect on plasma leptin in all rats. Interestingly, GH could attenuate fasting effect on plasma leptin in rats that have lower fat mass.

Open access
Lactobacillus plantarum B7 attenuates Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice: preclinical study in vitro and in vivo

Abstract

Background

Salmonella typhimurium is a cause of gastroenteritis including diarrhea. Lactobacillus plantarum is a probiotic widely used to prevent and treat diarrhea.

Objectives

To determine the protective effects of L. plantarum B7 on diarrhea in mice induced by S. typhimurium.

Methods

Inhibition of S. typhimurium growth by L. plantarum B7 was determined using an agar spot method. Mice were divided into 3 groups (n = 8 each): a control group, an S group administered 3 × 109 CFU/mL S. typhimurium, and an S + LP group administered 1 × 109 CFU/mL L. plantarum B7 and 3 × 109 CFU/mL S. typhimurium daily for 3 days. Counts of S. typhimurium and percentage of fecal moisture content (%FMC) were determined from stool samples. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CXCL1 were determined.

Results

L. plantarum B7 produced a clear zone on S. typhimurium. There were significantly less S. typhimurium in the feces from mice in the S+LP group than in the S group. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CXCL1 in mice from the S group were significantly higher than levels in the S+LP and control groups. Feces from mice in the S group were soft and loose, whereas in the S+LP group they were hard and rod shaped. The %FMC in the S+LP group was significantly less than in the S group.

Conclusions

L. plantarum B7 can inhibit growth of S. typhimurium, decrease levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and attenuate symptoms of diarrhea induced in mice by S. typhimurium.

Open access
Outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with obstructive jaundice with and without preoperative biliary drainage: a retrospective observational study

Abstract

Background

Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary neoplasms may reduce the untoward effects of biliary obstruction and subsequent postoperative complications. However, PBD is associated with bile contamination and increases infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).

Objectives

To determine whether PBD is associated with more complications after PD.

Methods

Patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary lesions who underwent PD from 2000 to 2015 at our institution were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort was divided into a group with PBD and a group without. PBD was performed using one of the following methods: endoprosthesis, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, surgical biliary-enteric bypass, or T-tube choledochostomy. PDs were performed by the first author using uniform surgical techniques. Postoperative complications were recorded. Statistical analyses were conducted using an unpaired t, Fisher exact, or chi-squared tests as appropriate.

Results

There were 26 with PBD and 28 patients without. Patients in the 2 groups were similar in age, presenting serum bilirubin level, operative time, operative blood transfusion, and hospital stay. The group with PBD had longer duration of jaundice, more patients presenting with cholangitis, and more patients with carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. The overall complications were higher in patients in the group with PBD than in the group without.

Conclusions

PBD was associated with more complications overall after PD. However, PBD was necessary and lifesaving in certain clinical situations and improved the condition of patients before they underwent PD. Routine PBD in patients with obstructive jaundice without definite indications is not recommended.

Open access
Open access
Sodium glycerophosphate and prescribed calcium concentrations in pediatric parenteral nutrition: a retrospective observational study and economic evaluation

Abstract

Background

The risk of precipitation limits calcium and phosphate concentrations that can be administered parenterally to pediatric patients. As an alternative to dipotassium phosphate, sodium glycerophosphate (NaGlyP) is claimed to reduce the risk of precipitation in solutions for parenteral administration.

Objectives

To determine the calcium concentrations, NaGlyP, and dipotassium phosphate prescribed in pediatric parenteral nutrition orders and the cost–benefit of the organic phosphate.

Methods

We retrospectively collected cross-sectional data for parenteral nutrition orders from September 2014 to August 2015 for pediatric patients including neonates and children aged <18 years who were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Calcium concentration, calcium concentration adjustments, and costs of phosphate used per bag were analyzed.

Results

Of 2,192 parenteral nutrition orders, NaGlyP was used in 2,128 (97.1%) with calcium concentrations in the range of 0.84–139.91 mmol/L, which were significantly higher than calcium concentrations used with dipotassium phosphate (0.00–12.21 mmol/L, P < 0.001). There was no report of visible precipitation. Median costs of NaGlyP and dipotassium phosphate used per unit bag were not significantly different (35.88 and 41.25 Thai baht [THB] or 1.04 and 1.20 USD per bag, respectively, P>0.99; (1 USD equivalent to 34.241 THB U.S. Federal Reserve Bank G5.A annual average rate 2015).

Conclusions

Higher calcium concentrations could be achieved without increasing the direct cost per unit bag significantly as a result of using NaGlyP, an alternative to dipotassium phosphate as a source of phosphate for patients who require high amounts of calcium in parenteral nutrition.

Open access
21st Century era of anatomy
Open access