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In vitro Callus induction of aromatic rice depends on the concentration of 2, 4-D

Abstract

Due to growing population, there is an increasing demand of rice production but its productivity is lessened day by day. Aromatic rice has a great demand during festivals in many countries. Kalijira is one of them not only Bangladesh but also all over the world due to its attractive flavor, fine grain and good taste which is generally used to prepare dishes in different special occasions. But there are some limitations to cultivate aromatic rice Such as lack of high yielding variety, fine grain quality, disease or pest resistant, stress and salt tolerance variety and proper cultural management. To overcome this problem tissue culture can be used. However, the lack of a simple and efficient protocol for callus induction in this cereal crop. In this study we tried to find out the potentiality of aromatic rice variety named kalijira for callus induction from mature embryo and to find out the suitable concentration of 2, 4-D for callus induction and proliferation. The highest callus induction were observed when the media was supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D and the frequency of callus induction was lowest in 0.5 mg/L concentration of 2, 4-D. This study will be useful for selecting suitable concentration of growth regulator (2, 4-D) for callus induction in future that will be useful for not only national but also international plant breeders.

Open access
Natural product like “shikonin” might be a hope for Breast cancer cure

Abstract

Among all cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall, both in the developed and less developed country. It is a matter of concern worldwide, that there is no effective drug is available for cancer treatment. Although, Surgery, radiation, hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy, and chemotherapy are being used for treatment of breast cancer in recent years, due to life threatening side effects, these treatment approaches becoming more vulnerable. However, researchers from across the world searching a safe and effective treatment approach that can be a breakthrough for this situation, as it is evident that natural compounds like shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can fight against aggressiveness of breast cancer by regulating apoptosis, necroptosis and estrogen receptor signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed about potential green chemical compounds with their mechanisms of actions, which can be very effective treatment regimen for breast cancer and can be more potent by their proper modifications and further molecular research. Hopefully in future, research focusing on the “shikonin” will open a new door for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients as well as cancer cure.

Open access
Optimization of fermentation condition for cellulase enzyme production from Bacillus sp.

Abstract

Cellulase is an important enzyme in present-day of industrial biotechnology. The current study is concerned with the production and partial characterization of cellulase enzyme from Bacillus sp. The effect of various fermentation conditions for cellulase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Maximum enzyme production was obtained after 24 hours of incubation in fermentation medium with pH 3.5 at 35°C under having agitation at 150 rpm while inoculums volume 1% was applied. Enzyme production was 1.91 times higher after optimizing the production condition as compared to the basal media. Cellulase characterization revealed that optimum activity was at pH 5.5 and 50°C for 50 minutes. About 68% of the activity retained after heating the crude enzyme solution at 50°C for 30 minutes. This nature makes cellulase a suitable candidate for current mainstream biomass conversions for sustainable agriculture and industrial processes.

Open access
Transplanting date adjustment in Boro rice cultivation as a strategy to reduce groundwater withdrawal in Bangladesh

Abstract

Due to intensive irrigated rice cultivation during dry season, declining trend of groundwater level is observed in many parts of Bangladesh. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at four experimental stations of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Bangladesh to evaluate the performance of some Boro rice cultivars in different planting dates with respect to yield and irrigation water requirement, and to optimize between yield and irrigation water requirement, with a view to reduce groundwater withdrawal and hence reducing mining of groundwater. The transplanting dates were 21th January (T1), 15th February (T2), 7th March and 30th March. Four rice cultivars were used. The results showed that the rice growth period was shortened with the later dates of transplanting. Generally, the yield of all cultivars at first and second transplanting (i.e. in T1 & T2) are good, and decrease at the later transplanting dates (T3, T4) and hence could not be recommended among farmers. When we consider the irrigation savings in T2 compare to T1, the irrigation savings varies with location and year, but the general tendency is that the second transplanting can save irrigation water. By considering economic (intrusion of additional rabi crop between two rice crops) and ecological factor (irrigation reduction, and hence reducing groundwater withdrawal), we recommend that the most suitable transplanting time for Boro rice should be 15th February. As such, we can effectively achieve good yield, reduce irrigation requirement, and creating opportunity for possible intrusion of addition Rabi crop between two rice crops. Overall, the findings of the present study can provide effective transplanting time and cultivar to reduce groundwater withdrawal in the present agro-ecosystem of northwestern Bangladesh and other similar areas.

Open access
Development of Additional Professional Medical Education Organisation in Accordance with the Principles of Quality Management

Abstract

Issues of education quality have acquired special relevance since the beginning of the 20th century. Implementation of the idea of quality in the educational organisation is promoted by use of the international ISO standards regulating quality of the management system. Certification of a quality management system in an organisation ensures its sustainable development. Experience of such work exemplified by additional medical education organisation is presented in the article.

The present paper addresses approaches to implementation of the following quality management principles: customer focus; leadership; involvement of people; process approach; continuous improvement; evidence-based decision making; relationship management; system approach to management. The structure of processes in the medical education institution is presented including the major process “Professional training and retraining in the field of health care”, main (core) processes: “Educational activities” and “Scientific activities”; management processes: “Strategic planning”, “Documentation management”, “Records management”, “Internal audits”, “Nonconformity management”, “Corrective and preventive actions”, “Monitoring and measurement of processes and educational services”, “Quality management system analysis by senior management”; supporting processes: “Personnel management”, “Work environment management and information support”, “Financial and economic support”, “Library services”, “Methodical support of the educational process and training for teachers”, “Publishing activities”. All processes are designated in a consistent model with special codes, which helps to streamline the document management system in the organisation.

Open access
Extraction and Evaluation of Phytochemicals from Banana Peels (Musa sapientum) and Banana Plants (Musa paradisiaca)

Abstract

Banana plants (Musa paradaisica) and banana peels (Musa sapientum) two of same genus Musa are grown in worldwide and consumed as ripe fruit or used for culinary purpose. All parts of the banana plants have medicinal applications. The aim of the present study was detection of phytochemicals from this two types of samples and find out some viable phytochemicals which might be used as food additives after commercial purification. These two types of samples banana plants and banana peels were collected from local area of sobhanbagh near Daffodil International University. Samples were washed and dried in room temperature and grinded in pestle. Then 25 gm of grinded samples were soaked in 75 ml of 70% methanol, ethanol, acetone and 0.9% NaCl solution for 72 hours. Then all the extracts of banana peels and banana plants were detected by standard protocol. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, terpenoids, were detected from those extracts. Negative and positive result of presence of phytochemicals were detected by the observing of color change. Banana peels and banana plant extracts were showed maximum result in ethanolic extracts. The present study showed qualitative analysis of phytochemicals content existence in banana peels and banana plants extracts. The study also discussed the application of some phytochemicals in food industry.

Open access
Halal System in Meat Industries

Abstract

Halal certification is one of the prerequisites for entering the global halal market. It does provide recognition of quality and safe product through the concept of halalan toyyiban for the entire supply chain, from farm to fork. In halal meat industry, the system covers from practicing good animal husbandry in the farm until the post-slaughter management in order to maintain the halal status. Animal welfare aspect and ante-mortem inspection were also highlighted in reducing the chances of slaughtering the injured or diseased animal which may not only affecting the meat quality but unhealthy for consumption. Rapid bleeding resulting from the slaughtering process will increases the shelf-life of the meat by reducing the risk of carcass contamination and product deterioration. As the concept of toyyiban (wholesomeness) is practice, the meat is free from any microbiological, physical and chemical hazards.

Open access
The Importance of Teaching History of Prosthetic Dentistry for Future Dentists’ Personality Formation

Abstract

Currently in the modern pedagogical process at a higher medical institution, teachers often shift emphasis towards the new technologies and methods for treating diseases. In this case, classical techniques, their development, and scientists who influenced the formation of orthopaedic dentistry are undeservedly downplayed in the training process. In order to preserve the interest of dental students in the historical process, it is necessary to teach the material taking into account modern processes that occur in orthopaedic dentistry. We searched for materials on the history of prosthetic dentistry in the scientific and historical literature. A special attention was paid to those moments of history that had been reflected in the present through modern materials, schools or methods of treating patients. After the selection of the materials and their discussion, the teaching staff of the KrasSMU Department-Clinic for Prosthetic Dentistry made proposals regarding each of the nine training cycles. In each study cycle, we included some information about historical moments and personalities that are known to be important for students’ moral education and learning. Specifically, we used information taken from the scientific and historical literature, autobiographies, memoirs of contemporaries, and presentations containing material suitable for assimilation. Thus, we managed to naturally include the history of prosthetic dentistry into the educational process.

The applied approach to teaching the history of medicine had many positive aspects. Following up the development of views on various prosthetic dentistry issues allowed us to provide a more natural introduction to complex clinical disciplines. We emphasized the scientific experience continuity and the interdisciplinary approach to professional issues. A number of positive moral and ethical qualities were discussed that have allowed scientists to achieve significant results in their activities. Through the demonstration of domestic scientists’ achievements, we carried out promotion of patriotism among the students. Considering the above advantages, we emphasize the importance of teaching the history of prosthetic dentistry in educating future dentists.

Open access
Kinetics study on dried Moringa oleiferaleaves during sun drying, multi commodity solar tunnel dryer drying and oven drying

Abstract

Moringa oleifera leaves are familiar to all, but unknowing that this leaves contain quite a lot of nutrient value which are useful for human body function. This plant’s leaves contain verities of antioxidant which inhabit & fight against free radical to cell of human body for preventing cancer. Moringa leaves need to dry for use through diversified use. Storage and processing quality depend on better dry. The purpose of this research isto identifying and examined performance of different types of dryer to dry Moringa oleiferaleaves. For Moringa dried leaves apply three common type of dryer i.e. sun dryer, multi commodity solar tunnel dryer and oven dryer. This study was conducted to introducing & used of Moringa oleifera leaves as ingredient of functional foods. Through this study the ration of time and moisture loss by several dryer are mentioned. Most of the dryer for temperature range 30°C to 70°C. In MCST dryer found better in color and dried rate as compared others, highest moisture loss in happed in MCST dryer and total removal moisture 75 %. At each dryer 40 g sample was taken. Frequently after 2 hours the dryers were observed and the Moringaleaves (sample 1, 2) were scatteredhomogenously into the baskets or salver. Moistnessreduction datawasnotedaftereach 2 hour breakswhile drying process running. The time and moisture contend will vary for based on the maturity of moringa leaves. In the closing moisture found at the final product was approximately 25 % and total 17.50 g. Optimum amount of moisture content increase shelf life, prevent loss of nutrition and protect form microbial spoilage.

Open access