Browse

1 - 10 of 19 items :

  • Basic Medical Science x
  • Health Care x
Clear All
Development of Additional Professional Medical Education Organisation in Accordance with the Principles of Quality Management

Abstract

Issues of education quality have acquired special relevance since the beginning of the 20th century. Implementation of the idea of quality in the educational organisation is promoted by use of the international ISO standards regulating quality of the management system. Certification of a quality management system in an organisation ensures its sustainable development. Experience of such work exemplified by additional medical education organisation is presented in the article.

The present paper addresses approaches to implementation of the following quality management principles: customer focus; leadership; involvement of people; process approach; continuous improvement; evidence-based decision making; relationship management; system approach to management. The structure of processes in the medical education institution is presented including the major process “Professional training and retraining in the field of health care”, main (core) processes: “Educational activities” and “Scientific activities”; management processes: “Strategic planning”, “Documentation management”, “Records management”, “Internal audits”, “Nonconformity management”, “Corrective and preventive actions”, “Monitoring and measurement of processes and educational services”, “Quality management system analysis by senior management”; supporting processes: “Personnel management”, “Work environment management and information support”, “Financial and economic support”, “Library services”, “Methodical support of the educational process and training for teachers”, “Publishing activities”. All processes are designated in a consistent model with special codes, which helps to streamline the document management system in the organisation.

Open access
The Importance of Teaching History of Prosthetic Dentistry for Future Dentists’ Personality Formation

Abstract

Currently in the modern pedagogical process at a higher medical institution, teachers often shift emphasis towards the new technologies and methods for treating diseases. In this case, classical techniques, their development, and scientists who influenced the formation of orthopaedic dentistry are undeservedly downplayed in the training process. In order to preserve the interest of dental students in the historical process, it is necessary to teach the material taking into account modern processes that occur in orthopaedic dentistry. We searched for materials on the history of prosthetic dentistry in the scientific and historical literature. A special attention was paid to those moments of history that had been reflected in the present through modern materials, schools or methods of treating patients. After the selection of the materials and their discussion, the teaching staff of the KrasSMU Department-Clinic for Prosthetic Dentistry made proposals regarding each of the nine training cycles. In each study cycle, we included some information about historical moments and personalities that are known to be important for students’ moral education and learning. Specifically, we used information taken from the scientific and historical literature, autobiographies, memoirs of contemporaries, and presentations containing material suitable for assimilation. Thus, we managed to naturally include the history of prosthetic dentistry into the educational process.

The applied approach to teaching the history of medicine had many positive aspects. Following up the development of views on various prosthetic dentistry issues allowed us to provide a more natural introduction to complex clinical disciplines. We emphasized the scientific experience continuity and the interdisciplinary approach to professional issues. A number of positive moral and ethical qualities were discussed that have allowed scientists to achieve significant results in their activities. Through the demonstration of domestic scientists’ achievements, we carried out promotion of patriotism among the students. Considering the above advantages, we emphasize the importance of teaching the history of prosthetic dentistry in educating future dentists.

Open access
Late Cognitive Impairment After Coronary Bypass Graft Surgery: Opportunities in Rehabilitation with the Use of Computer-Based Training

Abstract

In spite of recent significant advances in reduction of mortality and disability, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains widespread both in Russia and around the world. Coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) has proved to be the most effective method of CHD treatment, providing that conservative therapy is not effective enough. The aim of the present study was to reveal and correct postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), developed under the conditions of cardiopulmonary bypass (CB) in patients with CHD within 12 months after CABG.

A total of 87 patients were examined, all the patients underwent a course of drug therapy, 50 patients underwent a course of rehabilitation using computer-based stimulation programmes (once per day for 20 minutes within 10 days) in addition to medical therapy. A reliable improvement in results of the conducted research suggests that the proposed method provides safety and high performance in cognitive rehabilitation of patients with impairments of the higher brain functions after CABG. A relatively short course of rehabilitation (10 days) corresponded to the length of hospital stay of patients in the cardiac unit. However, even in such a short course we could obtain significant advantage in terms of efficiency of higher cortical functions recovery. Therefore, a course of rehabilitation using computer-based stimulation programmes in patients with coronary heart disease after CABG was proved to be an effective way of correcting cognitive function.

Open access
Poor Knowledge of the Harmful Effects of Shisha Among Shisha Smokers: Findings from a Preliminary Survey in Northwest Nigeria

Abstract

Background: Tobacco smoking is an addictive behavior with heavy risks accompanying its prolonged practice. Unfortunately, more and more people are indulging in tobacco smoking habits despite the public health education programs going on worldwide about the dangers associated with tobacco smoking behavior. This study aims to survey active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi Local Government Area (LGA), Kebbi State, Nigeria, on the awareness of the harmful effects associated with shisha smoking.

Methods: This study was a survey of 45 active shisha smokers in Birnin Kebbi LGA. Snowballing technique was adopted in participants’ recruitment. Study instrument was a questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software.

Results: Majority (32/45) of the participants were males, 16 had secondary school education, and 19 were within age range of 15 to 24 years. The majority (25/45) of them began to smoke shisha at the age of 18 years or more; also, 20 participants smoked shisha in all the 30 days prior to their participation in this study. Less than half of the study participants knew that: shisha is a stimulant (6/45), shisha smoke contains carbon monoxide (10/45), and the liquid in shisha could be replaced with alcohol (15/45). However, more than half of the participants knew that shisha contains nicotine (23/45) and tobacco (25/45). Only 16, 13, 11, 9, 5, 10, and 13 participants knew that shisha smoking could lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, increase in the risk of infections, reduced baby weight in pregnancy, gum and mouth disease, eye disease and blindness, and harm to non-smokers, respectively.

Conclusion: Many of the active shisha smokers surveyed in this study began smoking shisha at a young age. Also, a significant proportion of them were unaware of the health hazards associated with shisha use; hence the need to educate them and even the Nigerian public on the dangers associated with shisha use.

Open access
Simultaneous Evaluation of Communication Skills by Standardized Patients and Medical Evaluators

Abstract

Introduction: The present study analyzes the evaluation of communication skills by standardized patients (SPs) and medical evaluators (Es) in an OSCE setting.

Methods: The OSCE involved 189 sixth-year medical students, as well as 34 SPs and 63 Es. Communications skills were evaluated in 8 stations, simultaneously by SPs and Es. The SPs were actors who had been trained in the clinical case and who acted in accordance with a standardized script in a simulated clinical situation. The evaluators, also standardized, were Resident Doctors or staff Doctors from the Hospital Services involved.

Results: The global scores awarded to students for communication skills were very similar in both groups, although the score awarded by Es was significantly higher, and a direct relationship was also observed between the mean scores awarded by both groups. Evaluators awarded significantly higher scores than SPs in 7 out of the 10 items on the checklist. Female medical students also scored significantly higher than their male counterparts in many items, including external appearance, listening, cordiality, optimism, interest, expression and empathy.

Discussion: Our data indicate that SPs and Es evaluated communication skills in a similar manner in an OSCE setting, a finding which suggests that health-related professionals can be used as an alternative to SPs, thus helping to lower economic costs. Our study also confirms a gender difference (in favor of women) in the evaluation of communications skills by both groups.

Open access
Developing Communicative Competence in Students of Higher Medical Schools

Abstract

Communicative competence has been the central point of a great number of English for specific purposes (ESP) studies. However, its relevance to second language acquisition by medical students and attainability are still to be established as the critical evaluation of the present findings may help to create a valuable inventory for practical use in a classroom. The review set out to explore the present-day concept of communicative competence with regard to ESP teaching and ways of its development in students of medical universities. It analyzed the structure of the concept of communicative competence generally viewed as comprising both linguistic and extralinguistic constituents. Special emphasis was placed on the aspect of enhancing competitive competence through students’ involvement in oral communication. One of the most effective ways of developing communication skills in ESP classes in medical schools is exposure to authentic communication using Internet facilities. The videos should be thematically adjusted to the students’ professional needs and correlate with their level of linguistic and professional expertise. This approach helps to accomplish a number of teaching goals such as providing students with the information about the framework of speech events iterative in medical and academic spheres, communication patterns used in them, and raising their professional and socio-cultural awareness. It also aims to develop their ability to perform speech activities within a wide range of professional and academic contexts. The review made it possible to identify efficient reproductive and productive teaching methods to be employed.

Open access
Factors Responsible for Delayed Presentation at the Dental Clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Abstract

Background: It is a very sad experience, as a clinician, to see a patient presenting very late at a dental office with complicated oral health-related problems when the initial causal problem is very cheap, easy, and simple to treat. This study aims to determine the factors causing delay in seeking dental treatment among the patients visiting the dental clinic of the Fedearal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was questionnaire-based survey of 172 non-paediatric patients attending the dental clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. Data was obtained on their socio-demographic characteristics and the reasons behind their late presentation. Data analysis was done using the SPSS Version 20 Software. Results: Most of the participating patients were males (57.6%), Muslims (73.8%) and of age 16 – 35 years (65.1%). Also, 66.9% of them were from the Hausa tribe, 62.8% were married, and 40.1% had polytechnic/university education. The reasons indicated by the respondents for their delay in seeking early oral healthcare services at our dental clinic were diverse. However, the three most commonly given reason were: busy work schedules, dental anxiety, and preference for traditional treatment options. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of delayed presentation among patients visiting the dental clinic of the Federal Medical Centre situated in the Birnin Kebbi metropolis. This study also identified the reasons for such delays. This study also corroborates other studies in ascertaining that delayed dental visit is a public health and clinical problem in the Nigerian setting. Hence, there is an imminent need to ensure that the public are educated on oral health issues.

Open access
Preliminary Reflection on Content and Language Integrated Learning as a Tool for Teaching English in a Globalised World

Abstract

CLIL has become synonymous with teaching English to non-specialist students in professional and academic (ex. universities) contexts. However, it should not be seen as a unique approach that could be applied to any situation. The present reflection aims to emphasise the importance of social and educational contexts in the shaping of CLIL as a tool for both research and teaching, as a research question. It proposes a plan for research that needs to be collaborative and comparative in its objectives and methodology (action research), which will be followed by the presentation of the expected outcomes.

Open access
Using Social Media for Effective Health Care Service Delivery: Bibliometrics and Sociometry

Abstract

Background: Today, social media seems to be a common forum for sharing information, discuss ideas and knowledge. The number of social media users are at increasing trend even in developing countries. The importance of using social media, especially in delivering healthcare services information, include the creation of awareness and firsthand information of health and health-related issues (effect of adverse drug reactions, reporting, among others). Purpose: The main objective of this work is to outline and discuss the opportunities and challenges of using social media in the health area. Specifically, the objectives of this paper are to compare the role of health professionals and consumers with special reference to social media; detect the validity of the information available in social media, and understand how to deal with incorrect/false information, and to analyze the main characteristics of the publications on the subject social media in healthcare.

Methods: This article is a narrative review, also a descriptive quantitative research, using the techniques of bibliometrics and sociometry in order to obtain information relevant to the subject in question. Results: The results presented the countries, researchers and universities that produced the most on the subject, and demonstrated the efficiency of bibliometrics and sociometry techniques for health research, going beyond a narrative review.

Conclusion: It is concluded that social media is a competitive differential in the provision of health services. To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback. Suggestion: To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback.

Open access
What Should Be the Research Ethics for Young Researchers?
Open access