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Open access

A. Bhusal, S. Gautam, B. Sapkota, S. Shrestha and J. Ferreira

Open access

S. Shrestha, J. Ferreira and A. Galti

Abstract

Background: Today, social media seems to be a common forum for sharing information, discuss ideas and knowledge. The number of social media users are at increasing trend even in developing countries. The importance of using social media, especially in delivering healthcare services information, include the creation of awareness and firsthand information of health and health-related issues (effect of adverse drug reactions, reporting, among others). Purpose: The main objective of this work is to outline and discuss the opportunities and challenges of using social media in the health area. Specifically, the objectives of this paper are to compare the role of health professionals and consumers with special reference to social media; detect the validity of the information available in social media, and understand how to deal with incorrect/false information, and to analyze the main characteristics of the publications on the subject social media in healthcare.

Methods: This article is a narrative review, also a descriptive quantitative research, using the techniques of bibliometrics and sociometry in order to obtain information relevant to the subject in question. Results: The results presented the countries, researchers and universities that produced the most on the subject, and demonstrated the efficiency of bibliometrics and sociometry techniques for health research, going beyond a narrative review.

Conclusion: It is concluded that social media is a competitive differential in the provision of health services. To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback. Suggestion: To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback.

Open access

A. O’Connell and C. Chaplier

Abstract

CLIL has become synonymous with teaching English to non-specialist students in professional and academic (ex. universities) contexts. However, it should not be seen as a unique approach that could be applied to any situation. The present reflection aims to emphasise the importance of social and educational contexts in the shaping of CLIL as a tool for both research and teaching, as a research question. It proposes a plan for research that needs to be collaborative and comparative in its objectives and methodology (action research), which will be followed by the presentation of the expected outcomes.

Open access

W. Olawole and K. Kanmodi

Abstract

Background: It is a very sad experience, as a clinician, to see a patient presenting very late at a dental office with complicated oral health-related problems when the initial causal problem is very cheap, easy, and simple to treat. This study aims to determine the factors causing delay in seeking dental treatment among the patients visiting the dental clinic of the Fedearal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was questionnaire-based survey of 172 non-paediatric patients attending the dental clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. Data was obtained on their socio-demographic characteristics and the reasons behind their late presentation. Data analysis was done using the SPSS Version 20 Software. Results: Most of the participating patients were males (57.6%), Muslims (73.8%) and of age 16 – 35 years (65.1%). Also, 66.9% of them were from the Hausa tribe, 62.8% were married, and 40.1% had polytechnic/university education. The reasons indicated by the respondents for their delay in seeking early oral healthcare services at our dental clinic were diverse. However, the three most commonly given reason were: busy work schedules, dental anxiety, and preference for traditional treatment options. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of delayed presentation among patients visiting the dental clinic of the Federal Medical Centre situated in the Birnin Kebbi metropolis. This study also identified the reasons for such delays. This study also corroborates other studies in ascertaining that delayed dental visit is a public health and clinical problem in the Nigerian setting. Hence, there is an imminent need to ensure that the public are educated on oral health issues.

Open access

V. Zhura and J. Rudova

Abstract

Communicative competence has been the central point of a great number of English for specific purposes (ESP) studies. However, its relevance to second language acquisition by medical students and attainability are still to be established as the critical evaluation of the present findings may help to create a valuable inventory for practical use in a classroom. The review set out to explore the present-day concept of communicative competence with regard to ESP teaching and ways of its development in students of medical universities. It analyzed the structure of the concept of communicative competence generally viewed as comprising both linguistic and extralinguistic constituents. Special emphasis was placed on the aspect of enhancing competitive competence through students’ involvement in oral communication. One of the most effective ways of developing communication skills in ESP classes in medical schools is exposure to authentic communication using Internet facilities. The videos should be thematically adjusted to the students’ professional needs and correlate with their level of linguistic and professional expertise. This approach helps to accomplish a number of teaching goals such as providing students with the information about the framework of speech events iterative in medical and academic spheres, communication patterns used in them, and raising their professional and socio-cultural awareness. It also aims to develop their ability to perform speech activities within a wide range of professional and academic contexts. The review made it possible to identify efficient reproductive and productive teaching methods to be employed.

Open access

I. Sukharevа

Abstract

One of the most important developments of modern economics is the concept of economic mechanism design. Mechanism design is the study of economic mechanisms that produce behaviors in public health. The concept has profound implications for management. Management involves the effective use of mechanisms to change behavior. Public health managers must have a strong background in sociology and psychology, negotiation, finance, economics, organizational theory, and leadership. All managers work with limited resources. Managers must understand finance and economics: budgets, investment in the Health Care system, accountability, investment return, optimization, and decision analysis. This feature creates unique challenges for educating and supporting public health managers. To advance public health management as a profession we must apply the basics of mechanism design to its challenges. Leadership science provides a base for development of managers’ personal skills and attributes. Many graduate programs in business management and public administration deal with public health management. Accordingly, application of mechanism design (economic, social and others) in public health management can help managers become more effective. Mechanism design in public health management could provide an important way to improve health of the population.

Open access

N. Goncharenko

Abstract

The paper discusses the new interactive technologies in teaching Russian as a foreign language. Based on a review of literature, research, theory, internet resources and current teaching practices the paper considers both theoretical and practical aspects of the usage of interactive technology in teaching Russian as a foreign language for medical students. The author demonstrates that learning Russian plays a vital role for foreign students studying medicine in Russia, being a prerequisite for their educational and professional work performance during their studies in a Russian university. The new modern technologies of teaching such as interactive teaching technologies largely contribute to the increase of foreign students’ motivation for learning the Russian language, particularly for medical and biological studies, and the efficiency of the learning process, as well as to the development of an active verbal communication during the classroom activities. Teaching experience demonstrates the effectiveness of interactive technologies for the development of speaking proficiency, interpersonal and communication skills. Based on the theory of teaching practice at a medical university and on the literature review as well, we specified the core characteristics of the interactive technologies compared to the traditional methods of teaching. Our review’s results make it possible to suggest that interactive technologies implementation should be based on mechanisms of dialogue, reflexivity and collaboration. These mechanisms contribute to the formation of the communicative as well as professional competence of foreign students.

Open access

A. Shrestha, R. M. Shrestha, S. Shrestha and S. Shrestha

Abstract

An access to adequate and safe blood transfusion services is an essential measure of basic healthcare systems. The main purpose of hemovigilance is to enhance the quality and safety of the blood transfusion chains, which are implemented for improving the quality of the blood transfusion chain processes, especially focusing on blood safety. Globally, the framework of hemovigilance is extending as one of the key escalations to the group of the human services administrations, recognizing restructured blood transfusions administrations.

The core objective of this review article is to highlight the objectives of the hemovigilance framework, historical aspects of the hemovigilance framework around the world and the scenario of Nepal. Furthermore, it likewise features the scopes and strategies for implementation of hemovigilance at a hospital. An acceptance and incorporation of the hemovigilance system in an oncology hospital or in any tertiary care hospitals in Nepal can avert the incidence or reappearance of adverse events due to the transfusion identified with the whole transfusion chain process. Globally, including the least developed country like Nepal, the hemovigilance framework must be incorporated and systematized for upgrading transfusion and general society certainty additionally regarding blood and its products. Different strategies must be made for the successful implementation and strengthening the hemovigilance system.

In conclusion, there is an interminable and endless necessity for the effort on hemovigilance; although the rules, regulations, and tools are in place. With the end goal to have a productive hemovigilance framework in the least developed countries like Nepal, an extensive methodology and enormous ideas are required.

Open access

S. Yamakawa, O. Razvina, M. Ito, H. Hibino, T. Someya and T. Ushiki

Abstract

For more than 25 years Niigata University School of Medicine has been organizing medical exchanges with universities of the Russian Far East and Siberia. This exchange has turned out to be mutually beneficial for both universities, giving motivation to medical students and young doctors to strive for knowledge of international medicine. “Program for priority placement of foreign students sponsored by Japanese government” and “Re-inventing Japan project” initiated by Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) were adopted in 2014, so it gave us a perfect opportunity to expand the existing program. In 2017, the MEXT approved the application of Niigata University together with Hokkaido University for «Program of Globalization in the field of university education (in cooperation with Russia), the creation of a platform for interaction”. We hope advances in the field of medicine and medical care achieved as a result of such unique cooperation between Japan and Russia will greatly contribute not only to the welfare of citizens of both countries, but also to the development of industry and economy. We would like to share experience gained by our university in the sphere of Japanese-Russian medical exchanges and educational programs, as well to describe the prospects for further development.

Open access

K. Kononovich, Jean-Marc Macé and E. Yuryeva

Abstract

The challenges of medical demography have become a major issue today in France, mainly because of the conjunction of two phenomena. Namely, a massive retirement of the “baby boom” generation and a delay in the medical training induced by the “numerus clausus” that had not anticipated that phenomenon. Unfortunately, the repercussion of the population ageing on hospital consumption and consequently on medical demography is very poorly integrated into the calculation and implementation of the medical professions’ numerus clausus in 2010. Thus we suggest a model that not only identifies the effective demand for care on operational geographical scale, namely, the health territory, but that also makes a projection of healthcare consumption based on the age of population of each “health territory” in a T+1 future. To illustrate this model, we take as example the obstetricians’ activity in France.