The aim of this paper is to investigate how second language speakers of Norwegian (henceforth Norwegian L2 speakers) differ in their use of modality expressions from native speakers (L1 speakers). As modality is a very broad subject, the main focus of the study is limited to one-word modal adverbs, such as kanskje ‘maybe’, and modal particles such as jo. The study compares the frequency of using different types of modal adverbials by L1 and L2 speakers, and their syntactic position. The implications of the study are two-fold. First of all, it is to contribute to the studies of the field of modality in Norwegian. The second implication is didactic, as describing the use of modal adverbials in Norwegian conversation can help devise right teaching materials to allow second language users achieve a more native-like competence in this respect.
The Hungarian literary translator Henrik Hajdu (1890–1969) was one of the most extraordinary persons in the history of translating Scandinavian literature into Hungarian. Aside his activity as a translator from Norwegian and Swedish, Hajdu was also an important promoter of Danish authors of the 19th and 20th century. He held lectures on Nordic culture and literature, wrote reviews in prominent Hungarian journals and maintained regular contact to many of the Scandinavian publishers, writers, dramatists and poets. He translated novels by Henrik Pontoppidan, Martin Andersen Nexø and Sigrid Undset, made an edition of Ibsen's complete works and a great amount of short stories and poems. His oeuvre numbers about a hundred separate publications. This paper focuses on how he contributed to the general acceptance and reception of Danish literary works written between 1850 and 1930 among the Hungarian readers.
The paper presents an analysis and discussion of the Danish writer Inger Christensen’s experimental novel Azorno from 1967. It is argued that the novel, which is partly in epistolary form, can be read as a literary objet trouvé, a found manuscript consisting of a struggling writer’s unfinished notes and documents. I then attempt to characterise the novel using the typology of metafictional forms and attitudes proposed by Gemzøe (2001), and point out a number of potential problems with this typology.
In this paper we discuss the alienability splits in two Mainland Scandinavian languages, Swedish and Danish, in a diachronic context. Although it is not universally acknowledged that such splits exist in modern Scandinavian languages, many nouns typically included in inalienable structures such as kinship terms, body part nouns and nouns describing culturally important items show different behaviour from those considered alienable. The differences involve the use of (reflexive) possessive pronouns vs. the definite article, which differentiates the Scandinavian languages from e.g. English. As the definite article is a relatively new arrival in the Scandinavian languages, we look at when the modern pattern could have evolved by a close examination of possessive structures with potential inalienables in Old Swedish and Old Danish. Our results reveal that to begin with, inalienables are usually bare nouns and come to be marked with the definite article in the course of its grammaticalization.
The aim of the article is to analyze works written by four Polish-Danish authors in terms of defining the poetics they use to communicate their migration experience. The migration experience is to be understood as a never-ending process of translating own identity to a new cultural context. The point of departure for the analysis are selected works of four Polish-Danish authors: Alicja Fenigsen, Janina Katz, Bronisław Świderski and Grzegorz Wróblewski. The author of the article discusses also the existence/non-existence of a specific Polish-Danish migration aesthetic by comparing the analyzed works.
Inspired by the fact that there are as many as five different Polish translations of Gunnar Ekelöf’s poem Absentia animi (Non serviam, 1945), this paper aims to present and discuss several criteria that may be helpful to identify, describe and evaluate conditions, tendencies and strategies concerning Polish translations of Swedish poetry. The most crucial of the presented criteria, that may be used in order to ascertain what kind of poetry has been translated from Swedish into Polish so far, is the translator’s attitude to literary canons. It is based on Jerzy Jarniewicz’s distinction between two possible attitudes, i. e. ‘ambassador’ and ‘legislator’, which stand for respectively transferring the established canon from the source-language literature, and creating a new one that can influence the target-language literature. The other criteria discussed refer to the following questions: the affiliation of the translated text with either the source-language literature or the target-language literature (1), the possibility of evaluation of poetry translation (2), and the concept of untranslatability (3). All of the mentioned criteria can help to analyze the specific strategies applied in the translation process. The paper is to be seen as an introduction to a larger ongoing research conducted by the author.
This paper aims to examine how genericity is described in the Norwegian specialised literature concerning Norwegian Bokmål. Genericity is a grammatical (and to some extent semantic) phenomenon that can be expressed in different ways. In Germanic languages, including Norwegian, genericity is expressed by the use of both definite and indefinite articles, as well as bare nouns. In Norwegian, all five noun forms (namely bare noun, indefinite and definite singular forms and indefinite and definite plural forms) can be used to express a generic reference. The choice of a given noun form depends mainly on the context and the verb phrase used in a sentence. The examined materials discuss the phenomenon in a rather cursory way. Examples presented in the analysed books are mainly artificial and/or translated from the world literature on the subject. Such approach to the problem shows the lack of corpus-based research on genericity in Norwegian, which can be an interesting area to work on.
This article focuses on Joachim Lelewel’s interest in Old Norse literature as reflected in his paper on Old Norse literature delivered in 1806 and his book Edda that was published a year later. Lelewel’s Edda comprises the first Polish translation (partly as a concise retelling) of selected parts of the French translation of the Poetic Edda and the Snorra Edda as included in Paul Henri Mallet’s Monumens de la mythologie [...] published in 1756. Lelewel’s work is placed in the context of the rising interest in this literature before 1800, whereby special attention is put on the sources Lelewel resorted to, in particular Mallet’s publications and articles in the French literary magazine Magasin Encyclopedique. Comparing the Eddas in Lelewel’s and Mallet’s publications, one can, among other things, note that Lelewel (1) ignores the literary value of the dialogue form in Gylfaginning due to a narrow focus on the mythological content (2) relates the migration of the Scythians to northern Europe in his introduction which thus serves as a substitute for the missing Prologue to the Snorra Edda and (3) partly deviates from Mallet in his footnotes. Aspects (2) and (3) can also be linked back to Lelewel’s use of Magasin Encyclopedique.
The article analyzes Tove Jansson’s Moomin novels in terms of the representations of pipe smoking. The analysis focuses on three characters from the novels: Moominpappa, Snufkin, and the Joxter. The theoretic framework of the analysis is called “the semiotics of tobacco”. In this context, tobacco is regarded as a sign of the cultural sign-system, and thus what is exactly analyzed are the cultural meanings of tobacco in the Moomin novels.
This paper is a contribution to the discussion on audiovisual translation (AVT) in cinema and broadcast media on the example of Poland and Norway seen from the perspective of viewers. It aims at establishing possible differences and similarities in the way dominant AVT modes are viewed by younger people in these two countries. In AVT studies Norway has always been classified as a subtitling country while Poland has traditionally been associated with cinema subtitling and television voice-over, of which the latter often baffles AVT scholars. Consequently, one may presume that the audiences in these two countries are likely to have fairly disparate expectations towards AVT modes used in their cinemas and broadcast media. For the purpose of this article a questionnaire has been prepared and the findings arising from the analysis of the submitted replies will be presented here.