The development of critical thinking is conditioned by the action of many factors. To highlight this fact, I have focused on the opportunities offered by textbooks, teachers and learning activities for the development of the critical thinking of primary school pupils in Kosovo. The study begins from the idea that recognizing these opportunities opens the way for further improvement. The study was conducted with the participation of teachers and students. The textbooks of the primary school in Kosovo were also studied. The study has descriptive and mixed nature. His descriptive character is related to the description of the possibilities for the critical thinking development in the primary school, and the mixed character of methodology is related to the mixed nature of the collected data: textual facts, teachers’ opinions, learning practice / activities. The design of this research was conducted by combining three main methods: content analysis, interview and observation, by comparing each-other’s results of content analysis (tabs), teacher’s interviews, and observation in classes. This was done by analyzing the content of 24 textbooks (Literary anthology 1-5, Albanian Language 1-5, Civic Education 3-5, History 5, Art 1-5 and Music 1-5), 336 teachers were also interviewed and 336 lessons were observed. To collect data from the textbooks, an internationally recognized instrument for critical thinking has been modified, which is then adapted for the construction of an interview guide as well as for observing classroom activities. The study’s findings are interesting and important: it is noted that: the texts contain considerable opportunities for developing critical thinking, teachers have positive attitudes and classroom activities have useful elements that contribute to the development of critical thinking. Also, there are some differences from text to text, from teacher to teacher, and from one lesson to another. The study conclusions are descriptive and show which texts, opinions, and activities develop more critical thinking and which ones need further review and improvement. We come to some useful conclusions for both curriculum compilers (authors and publishers), their implementers, and inspectors.
Rasa Pauliene, Danuta Diskiene and Emilija Matuzeviciute
Culture plays a fundamental role in peoples’ perception of the world thus perception of the world and culture has a major impact on one another. Consequently, leadership cannot be effective if diversity of cultures, likewise values, habits, communication style, history, language, is not considered. Leadership is always associated with change, however, under continuously changing conditions of the competitive environment, managers may not always be initiators of positive changes, and employees themselves often know best what could facilitate their work and make it more successful. Therefore, leadership at multicultural organisations has started to be seen as the ability of an organisation as a whole, rather than an exceptional feature of a few top managers. The purpose of the study is to identify complex approach on multicultural team management and leadership. In order to reach the purpose of the study, qualitative research method and in-depth interviewing has been chosen. Questions and statements in the questionnaire reflect multicultural aspect: as people have different values, they are more culturally linked. It leads to differentiation of values and this can cause misunderstandings while communicating with co-workers from other cultures. Moreover, miscommunication can be caused by misperception, misinterpretation and misevaluation.
Ohanaka Blessing Ijeoma and Adeleke Ismaila Oladipo
An individual experiences boredom when an activity is neither entertaining nor conducive. Academic boredom and its negative influences include dissatisfaction and low arousal in school activities, depression, high school dropout, lack of academic goal orientation, abusive behaviours as well as poor academic performances among students. The study sought to investigate the efficacy of Systematic desensitization on academic boredom among students in Edo State Secondary Schools. The research used quasi experimental design adopting the pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group experiment. The population for the study consisted of One thousand, five hundred and eighty-two (I,582) SS2 students from Seven (7) public schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The sample for the study was made up of two intact classes comprising of 91 (Ninety-one) SS2 students. The instruments used for the study is Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS), developed by Farmer and Sunberg, adapted from Obisanya with a test retest reliability co-efficient of 0.792. The findings of this study showed that Systematic desensitization was effective in reducing academic boredom. It was also more effective than the control group (non-attention). It is therefore recommended that reciprocal inhibition can be used to desensitize the students by counsellors. In the classroom, the teacher should note individual differences, engage students in classroom activities, use real life situations and also make learning interesting.
José-Serafín Clemente-Ricolfe and Paula García-Pinto
This study quantified Erasmus students’ motivations for studying abroad. Surveys were completed by 120 Erasmus students at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) and their motivations for studying abroad were analysed via factor analysis. A two-step cluster analysis was used to segment students’ behaviour based on their motivations. Four factors were obtained: individual development, destination choice facilitators, academic aspects and the destination’s strong points. Behaviour was not uniform, and two different segments were found. In the first, which we refer to as “without perceived motivations”, no motivation was positively rated, while in the second, “with perceived motivations”, academics were a key motivating factor. Universities should consider working with the tourism sector to offer activities related to local culture. They could also organise classes outside of school hours to help Erasmus students learn Spanish.
The presentation of the professions from the older generation to elementary school pupils is one of the segments of intergenerational learning and intergenerational cooperation. Young people meet a person who actually did a particular occupation or profession. The older generation explains to the young generation what is needed to learn for a particular profession, and the young generation have the opportunity to test, or at least monitor the work they would do in the profession. The aim of our survey was to confirm that intergenerational learning is one of the cornerstones of quality aging. The data was collected with the survey questionnaire, which 200 representatives of older generation aged 65 and more have answered and was then quantitatively analyzed using a quantitative methodology. The results of the research confirmed that intergenerational cooperation through intergenerational learning, which involves the presentation of a profession of older generation to younger generation, affects the quality of life in the third life period. We can conclude that within intergenerational learning older generation gets the opportunity to transfer their knowledge, experience and share it with young generation, which leads to a higher quality of life even in the third stage of life. The younger generation is able to acquire concrete and useful information about professions first hand and in addition learn about aging and social tolerance.
Mathematical connection ability helps students to understand the concepts and the applications of mathematics, in this context, the teacher as an implementer of education has an important role to make a mathematical connection in their instruction. An ethnographic study was conducted to determine the teacher’s ability to make mathematical connections. A certified teacher with 30 years of teaching experience is observed and is interviewed to obtain the data. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings show that the relationship between mathematics and everyday life arises as a mathematical connection in the form of different representations. When the teacher shows that a sentence can be another representation of a mathematical symbol, then those activity is a configuration of mathematical connection representation. In this study, the part-whole relationship is obtained not as a generalization but as a specific example. The relationship between ideas, facts, and concepts in mathematics appears in every construction, however, the process of knowledge construction is only carried out in the form of procedure and implication.
Osenweugwor Ngozi Aihie and Blessing Ijeoma Ohanaka
The purpose of the study was to investigate the levels of perceived academic stress among undergraduate students in a University in Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to select three Faculties from the fourteen Faculties in the University. Simple random sampling was used to select 427 undergraduate students from the three Faculties to participate in the study. Data on perceived academic stress were collected with the aid of the Perceived Academic Stress Scale (PASS) which was adapted from Bedewy and Gabriel (2015) and re-validated for the study. Data collected for the study were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The perceived academic stress levels of the respondents were compared on the basis of sex, age, level /year of study and Faculty /course of study. The hypotheses formulated for the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that male undergraduate students reported higher academic stress level than the females. Undergraduate students in the Faculty of Physical Sciences reported significantly higher academic stress levels than students in the Faculties of Education and Social Sciences. Final year students also reported higher academic stress than students in the first and middle years of study. There was no difference in perceived academic stress levels based on the age of the students. It was concluded that sex of student, level of study and course of study influence perception of academic stress among undergraduate students. Implications for Students’ counselling were discussed.
Current research is dedicated to the issues of apprising personal and professional motivation of youth in the process of their training in higher educational institutions. Principal components of the motivational field of a personality, beneficial for professional success and productivity, have been examined, including such prominent types of motives as cognitive, social, professional, material and achievement. Individual dispositions have been scrutinized as the integral elements of the motivational scope of a person. Consistent patterns and missions of cognitive motivation within the educational process raised as one of the key questions throughout the research. Analyzing of meaningful and dynamic characteristics of personal motives enabled the authors of this paper to classify personal motives for self-development in the process of education, among which there are self-realization, self-affirmation, self-expression and self-actualization. Central assumption here is the correlation between an individual’s professional and personal activity and transformation of the tasks of professional and personal development. Theoretical framework consists of A.Leontiev’s, A.Maslow’s and C.Sanderson’s approaches to the notion of “motivation” as the inside encouraging reason for individual’s motions and activities.
The film Bicentennial Man (1999) pictured in a nutshell a robot who/that became human via his personality by plunging into the realities of freedom and death. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the notion of personality in the case of what this paper coins as a ‘robot-incarnate’ with the name Andrew, the first man who lived for two hundred years from his inception as an artificial machine. The method of exposition proceeds from (1) utilizing a philosophical reflection on the film concerning the determinacy of Andrew as a person and (2) then anchoring his case as a subject for the understanding of machine ethics. Regarding the first, the paper focuses on the questions of personality, death, and freedom. Regarding the second, the paper exposes the discussions of machine ethics and the issue of moral agency. Deducing from the already existing literature on the matter, the paper concludes that machine ethics must stand as the principle that serves as law and limitation to any scientific machine advancement showing promising potentials.
Maria José Sá, Carlos Miguel Ferreira and Sandro Serpa
Academic conferences have always been privileged spaces and moments for the dissemination of new scientific knowledge, as well as for social interaction and for the establishment and development of social networks among scientists. However, the virtual dimension of conferences, in which individuals are not physically present in the same place, begins to emerge as an increasingly used possibility, which implies a different framing of these scientific events. This paper seeks to comparatively analyse several models of academic conferences, putting forth their advantages, limitations and potentials. Furthermore, it also seeks to reasonably envision the importance and challenges to be faced in the near future. The analysis allows concluding that virtual conferences tend to take on an increasingly central role in this type of scientific dissemination, but without totally relegating the conference mode with face-to-face interaction. Moreover, there may be conferences that emerge as a hybrid between these two types of conferences, in an attempt to provide their main benefits to the various participants. However, the insufficient literature on this topic calls for the need to develop and deepen studies in this area that allow understanding this academic and social, but also economic phenomenon, in its broader implications.