Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.
Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.
Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.
Lucas de Lucena de Simões, Eline Autran de Lima, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema Santos, Tafnes Oliveira, Elenilson Maximino Bernardo, Luana Olegário, Erika Rabelo Fortes Siqueira and Matheus Santos de Sousa Fernandes
Study aim: To verify the relationship between different durations of regular practice of physical activity in aspects related to the anthropometric profile and hepatic function of patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Material and methods: 125 patients (aged 55.2 ± 10.4 years) participated in the study. Clinical data were obtained through medical records available at the Pernambuco Liver Institute. Physical activity levels were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form to classify the patients according to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Results: Significant differences were found in GGT 141 (28-378 U/L) and HDL 39 (27-56 mg/dL) respectively in insufficiently active and physically active groups, AST 71 (26-268 U/L), ALT 83 (36-452 U/L), GGT 78 (3-532 U/L), alkaline phosphatase 74 (47-302 mg/dL) and total bilirubin 0.7 (0.1-2.8 mg/dL) in insufficiently active and very physically active groups. Anthropometric data showed significant differences in chest (p < 0.01), abdomen (p < 0.02) and waist measurement (p < 0.01) between insufficiently active and very physically active groups.
Conclusion: Physical activity, when practiced regularly for more than 300 minutes per week, can improve the clinical and anthropometric profile in patients infected with HCV.
Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a well-known and popular therapy. Its growing popularity is based on high effectiveness and availability. However, there is a lack of agreement about which parameters should be used to optimize the effects of the therapy. The purpose of this review is to critically select and assess current literature and ascertain the values of the following parameters: (1) therapy duration, (2) volume of applied pressure, (3) speed and (4) frequency of roll, (5) type of roller, (6) the number of treatment applications during one session, (7) the duration of intervals between applications that yield the best results in terms of soft tissue.
The authors launched their research in May 2018. The search strategy included the electronic databases EBSCOhost and PubMed. The following inclusion criteria were assessed:
- English language, high quality manuscripts (evaluation in PEDro scale)
- at least one of the groups using the foam roller, tennis ball or the stick to fascial release
- basic parameters of therapy described.A total 55 articles met the inclusion criteria. Patients can usually withstand a maximum tolerable pressure for 30-120 seconds, repeated 1-3 times, separated by 30 seconds of rest. The intensity of a single rolling movement should be moderate, and the movement should last about 3 seconds. Keeping the roller on particularly sensitive areas is recommended to release tension and enhance blood perfusion.Currently, there is no consensus on an optimal FR programme. However, there is a tendency to use SMR tools with a physiology-based method to enhance therapeutic efficiency.
Mirosław Mikicin, Sylwia Nowacka-Dobosz, Anna Mróz, Anna Kuk and Adriana Zagórska-Pachucka
Study aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between attention and physical endurance (running) and anthropometric parameters of athletes.
Material and methods: The study examined 61 students aged 19 to 25 years, divided into two groups: athletes (33 participants) and non-athletes (28 participants). We employed anthropometric measurements and the Vienna System Test, including tools to measure focused attention, such as LVT (visual orientation performance test) and DAUF (test for examination of sustained attention) and the Cooper test to measure endurance.
Results: Analysis of the results demonstrated a relationship between attention and physical endurance with median time from LVT (r = –0.552). A relationship was also found between the Cooper test results and the mean time to incorrect answer (r = –0.900).
Conclusions: The analysis demonstrated a relationship between attention, physical endurance and anthropometric parameters of athletes.
Somruthai Poomsalood, Karthik Muthumayandi and Karen Hambly
Study aim: There are currently limited methods available to access dynamic knee range of motion (ROM) during free-living activities. This type of method would be valuable for monitoring and progressing knee rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functioning of stretch sensors for the measurement of knee ROM and to assess the level of the measurement error. Material and methods: Nine healthy participants were included in the study. Three stretch sensors (StretchSense™, Auckland, NZ) were attached on the participants’ right knees by Kinesiotape®. A Cybex dynamometer was used to standardise movement speed of the knee joint. Data was recorded through the StretchSense™ BLE application. Knee angles were obtained from the video clips recorded during the testing and were analysed by MaxTraq® 2D motion analysis software. The knee angles were then synchronised with the sensor capacitance through R programme. Results: Seven out of the nine participants presented with high coefficient of determination (R2) (>0.98) and low root mean square error (RMSE) (<5°) between the sensor capacitance and knee angle. Two participants did not confirm good relationship between capacitance and knee angle as they presented high RMSE (>5°). The equations generated from these 7 participants’ data were used individually to predict knee angles. Conclusions: The stretch sensors can be used to measure knee ROM in healthy adults during a passive, non-weight-bearing movement with a clinically acceptable level of error. Further research is needed to establish the validity and reliability of the methodology under different conditions before considered within a clinical setting.
Tomasz Gabryś, Krzysztof Stec, Cezary Michalski, Wiesław Pilis, Karol Pilis and Zbigniew Witkowski
Study aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the physiological responses of female soccer players recorded during the Beep Test and Yo-Yo Test.
Material and methods: Twenty-three high-level women’s soccer players underwent aerobic fitness testing. Modification of the Beep Test consisted of: lengthening the distance between turns to 40 m, extending the time between the increase in speed, and including a rest period between exercise stages. During the running efforts the length of the distance run in both tests was measured as well as circulatory and respiratory variables. For statistical analyses only data obtained at maximum loads in both tests were accepted.
Results: Analyzed variables showed that all values recorded in both tests reached maximum values and did not differ statistically significantly.
Conclusion: The results show that both applied tests loaded the soccer players to a similar maximum degree and the tests are suitable for assessing the aerobic physical performance.
Anthony C. Hackney, Ashley L. Kallman and Eser Ağgön
Study aim: Evidence supports female sex hormones have an influencing effect on amultitude of physiological and psychological systems related to exercise. Little is known, however, whether is effect persist into the recovery from exercise. Our objective was to examine aspects of muscle damage/inflammation process during recovery in healthy, exercise-trained women following endurance activity at the mid-follicular (MF; low sex hormone level) and mid-luteal (ML; elevated sex hormone levels) phases of their menstrual cycle.
Material and methods: The MF and ML exercise sessions consisted of running for 90 minutes at 70% VO2max on atreadmill in a controlled laboratory environment. Menstrual cycle phase was hormonally confirmed, diet and physical activity was control throughout the study. Outcome measures were: blood creatine kinase (CK) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) assessed at immediate-post exercise (IP), 24-hour and 72-hour into recovery. Statistics involved ANOVA procedures.
Results: At 24-hours and 72-hour into recovery CK activity was greater in MF than ML (p < 0.05) while for IL-6 at IP, 24-hour and 72-hour responses were significantly greater at MF than at ML (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Amore robust recovery CK and IL-6 response occur in the MF of the menstrual cycle when female sex hormones are reduced. This finding suggests female sex hormone changes due to menstrual cycle phase affect the physiologic responses during the extended recovery period from intensive exercise in eumenorrheic women.
Study aim: Interactions between the fingers and a handle can be analyzed using a finite element finger model. Hence, the biomechanical response of a hybrid human finger model during contact with varying diameter cylindrical handles was investigated numerically in the present study using ABAQUS/CAE.
Materials and methods: The finite element index finger model consists of three segments: the proximal, middle, and distal phalanges. The finger model comprises skin, bone, subcutaneous tissue and nail. The skin and subcutaneous tissues were assumed to be non-linearly elastic and linearly visco-elastic. The FE model was applied to predict the contact interaction between the fingers and a handle with 10 N, 20 N, 40 N and 50 N grip forces for four different diameter handles (30 mm, 40 mm, 44mm and 50 mm). The model predictions projected the biomechanical response of the finger during the static gripping analysis with 200 incremental steps.
Results: The simulation results showed that the increase in contact area reduced the maximal compressive stress/strain and also the contact pressure on finger skin. It was hypothesized in this study that the diameter of the handle influences the stress/strain and contact pressure within the soft tissue during the contact interactions.
Conclusions: The present study may be useful to study the behavior of the finger model under the static gripping of hand-held power tools.
Dariusz Boguszewski, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Katarzyna Boguszewska, Dominika Wrzosek, Natalia Mrozek, Marta Waloch and Dariusz Białoszewski
Study aim: The objective of the study was to reveal the functional limits of the motor system in women practising combat sports and team sports.
Material and methods: 102 women (mean age 25.2 years, body mass 62.2 kg, body height 168.3 cm) practising competitive ITF (International Taekwon-Do Federation) taekwon-do (n = 22), Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) (n = 15), football (n = 35) and basketball (n = 30) participated in the study. The assessment tool was the FMS test, comprising 7 movement patterns scored on a scale of 0–3.
Results: The studied female athletes earned medium scores. Women practising combat sports scored generally higher in the FMS test, although the difference was not significant (combat sports – mean value 15.57 ± 2.39, team sports – mean value 14.72 ± 1.93, difference – p = 0.07). Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the second (hurdle step) and the fifth pattern (active straight leg raise – ASLR). The aggregated FMS results of female taekwon-do (15.77) and BJJ athletes (15.22) were similar. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in one pattern (ASLR). Women practising football (14.77) and basketball (14.67) attained a similar level of results in the test. Statistically significant differences were noted in two trials: footballers scored higher in the ASLR task (p < 0.05), and basketball players scored higher in rotary stability (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: A statistically significant result in the FMS test was obtained by martial arts athletes, which may point to a higher level of functional movement, which may be a result of more universal training.
Study aim: To assess the effects of fatigue on agility and responsiveness in boxing.
Material and methods: Agroup of 20 amateur boxers aged 14–45 years participated in the study. Ditrich’s test and acomputer test, both measuring the speed of reaction to avisual stimulus, as well as agility run and 4 × 10 m shuttle run with carrying blocks, both measuring agility, were performed. Running agility and reaction speed were measured at 3levels of fatigue expressed by the heart rates. The capacity to maintain the highest possible level of measured variables was assessed by applying the performance index (PI) (mean value of three or four (in the case of Ditrich’s test) repetitions to the maximum one). Student’s t-test for dependent data and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used in data analysis, the level p ≤ 0.05 being considered significant.
Results: Both running agility and responsiveness markedly decreased with mounting fatigue, e.g. running speed from 1.73 ± 0.12 m/s to 1.55 ± 0.11 m/s.
Conclusion: Developing anaerobic endurance would markedly improve agility skills and speed of reaction to external stimuli. Measuring the performance index (PI) from short, maximal, repeated exertions spaced with constant intermissions may be a valuable tool in directing training activities towards development of selected elements of boxers’ physical fitness.