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Open access

Elena Mocrousov

Summary

Modern sport is characterized by rapid growth of records and achievements, and related significant intensification of training and competitive loads requires a scientifically grounded search for talented young people, who can cope with heavy sports loads, high rates of sports development and sports achievements. At the same time, search and selection of talented children for sports to begin their sports development should be based on scientific achievements in the field of pedagogy, psychology, physiology, sports training and other special subjects which give an appropriate idea about specifics of the status and development of the organism, its functional and movement capabilities. Exploring the problems of today’s youth, and the origins of table tennis, we can state that at the present stage table tennis can be an effective means of physical education of the younger generation of the Republic of Moldova, not only for sports development but also for the education of the socially and morally healthy young people. Sports practice of athlete’s development requires knowledge and records of indicators of their present and prospective physical, functional and psychomotor status, which dynamics and forecast allow planning athletic performance. The material for publication provides research findings on stabilometrical studies of functional movement status of children participating in sports selection for table tennis. At the same time, stabilometric criteria of children selection for table tennis serve an effective assessment of their physical condition, based on their previous movement experiences.

Applied stabilometrical tests for studying and assessing the functional movement skills are quite adequate to the due age development of the explored children and they allow to perform efficient sports selection at a high level. Applying these tests in the process of sports selection of children for table tennis will allow us to identify often outwardly hidden visual, hearing, proprioceptive, and vestibular distortions and necessary psychomotor status allowing to control their own motor actions.

Open access

Boban Milenković

Summary

Contemporary sport offers man the eclectics of industrial neopaganism, hidden behind the splendor of Olympism. Man through sport, as in many other ways, can find a way out of himself in order to encompass and gather the world around him. A good, Christocentric movement allows us to transform the world for the better, proving ourselves both in soul and body to be blessed helpers of the Lord on the journey of our salvation. Even though it is just an auxiliary means, sport is never agnostic, considering that in it, in the beginning, the gifts bestowed to the soul and body are brought closer together and guided towards salvation from sin, decay and death. In such a sense, sport cannot be equated with industrial sport in which the very concept of sport is only a mask for sin (profit).

Open access

Nenad Živanović, Petar Pavlović, Veroljub Stanković, Zoran Milošević, Nebojša Ranđelović and Kristina Pavlović-Babić

Summary

The end of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century are characterized by a technological development which could be described as having revolutionary speed. If we were to look back on the revolutionary events during the 17th and 18th century, in the domain of great scientific changes, changes in industry, agriculture, economy, the organization of social relations (democracy and socialism), we could say that we are witnesses to this sixth technological revolution.

All these civilizational leaps forward have conditioned, quite expectedly, big changes in our profession. This has been reflected in the goals which have been imposed by social changes initiated by numerous revolutionary changes. Even though man and his need for physical exercise, as the nourishing food necessary for his being, have remained the same, the circumstances which have imposed different living conditions have required changes in our profession. Naturally, this was reflected in our science as well (which we refer to by different names today).

The time we live in, caught up in this new sixth technological revolution, requires a different approach to man and his personality. Now, the question is not only how to “drag” him out of a sedentary culture, but also how to fight the increasingly present physical and intellectual inactivity. Through perfectly guided marketing activities which have been made possible by the implementation of new technological aids, man has been drawn into the hedonistic waters of his own inactivity. And unfortunately, he cannot free himself from this skillfully set trap. That is why physical culture and science must be included in finding a means of helping man find his way out of this hedonistic labyrinth and return to his roots.

Open access

Dragan Radovanović

Summary

Resistance training for children and adolescents, programmed according to individual needs and abilities and adequately implemented, is recommended by leading professional associations in the field of sports medicine, sport sciences and pediatrics. The most commonly used loads during training, with the aim of developing strength and power, are free weights and resistance exercise equipment that can be of standard sizes, but also specially designed for younger age groups, body weight exercises, and exercises with medicine balls and elastic bands. In addition to the positive influence on muscle strength and endurance, as well as a potential increase in the performance of certain motor tasks, regular resistance training can also result in improving body composition, increasing bone mineral density, improvement of cardio-respiratory endurance, as well as have a positive impact on the psycho-social status of children and adolescents. Due to the lack of clear evidence to suggest muscle hypertrophy in children, an increase in muscle strength is mainly attributed to neurological adaptations, including improved coordination, speed and the number of activated motor units. In designing a resistance training program for children and adolescents, one should respect the basic principles of training, pertaining to adults as well, but it must be borne in mind that neither children nor adolescents are “little adults”, and that one should not simply copy the training of adults or athletes.

Regular and clear instructions with constant supervision in resistance training for children and adolescents can have a positive impact on overall health, and can lead to the creation of positive habit acquisition to regularly perform training, and a healthy lifestyle. Current results and findings obtained from well-organized and monitored investigations, on a sample of children or adolescents, indicated a very low risk of injury when one meets all the training recommendations for a particular age group.

Open access

Julijan Malacko, Veroljub Stanković, Emilija Marković and Ljiljana Arsić

Summary

The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a series of processes which a leader in sport has to design and realize. The necessity of leadership presence (guidance) in sport can be found in the dynamic polyvalent and multidisciplinary development of contemporary human society, with the added note that management is more closely related to efficiency, and leadership with effectiveness and change. Based on the partial models of the structural and organizational system of sport constructed and presented so far, and the current global analyses of sports management and marketing, quality management, information, communication, scientific and training technology, as well as the analysis of individual models and their mutual interactions, we can conclude that the transformation processes which are in sport defined by applying increasingly more modern technologies, and in the world at large take place in a continued, dynamic and intense manner in sports organizations, should lead to the most efficient, optimal and effective modeling of increasingly newer and more modern creations, conceptions, projections and strategies, so that they could as a consequence lead to the strengthening of the role of specific sports and business functions.

Open access

Milan Čoh and Milan Žvan

Summary

The identification of talented athletes and their timely inclusion in the training process in the sport which most suits their abilities is one of the most demanding processes in modern sports science. Incorrect decisions are frequent and usually very painful. Elite sport is a field of human creativity which Slovenians value highly. In relation to the size of the population. Slovenia is one of the most successful “sports countries” in the world. Due to a decreased biological basis, a well-meaning and professional approach is necessary in the selection of individuals for a particular sport. The Faculty of Sport has developed certain expert systems and methods of evaluation and identification of talented children, whose purpose is to help parents and experts make the right decisions when it comes to introducing children to sport. These methods were based on the application of specific tests for determining individual motor skills. A battery of 13 morphological tests, 14 tests for special motor skills and 3 tests of the motor skill of running were used. It was determined that special tests of explosive strength and speed had the greatest predictive power for talented children. It should be pointed out that, despite the technology and state-of-the-art methodology used in the measuring procedure, it is impossible to predict talent with absolute certainly, let alone future sports achievements. The human body is an exceptionally complex system which is determined by numerous unpredictable factors. There is no doubt that the results of professional methods can be used as guidelines in the process of selection of an individual for a particular sport.

Open access

A.S. Grachev

Summary

Purpose: to determine the relationship between achievement motivation and the attitudes of schoolchildren of 11-17 years old and students of 18-21 years old to independent sports and passing control standards in the discipline \”Physical Education\”. Material: 1576 schoolchildren (boys n = 780 and girls n = 796) of comprehensive schools of Belgorod, Stary Oskol, Stroitel and Shebekino (Belgorod region, Russian Federation) and 246 students (men n = 127) were surveyed. and women n = 119) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (Belgorod, Russian Federation). The questionnaire consisted of three blocks of questions: the 1st block of questions - questions aimed at determining the age, sex, place of study of the respondent; 2nd block of questions - 8 questions, allowing to assess the attitude of the respondent to independent sports activities and the desire to take control standards of the discipline Y’Physical Education\”; 3rd block of questions is a test of 20 questions, developed by A.A. Rean, to assess the motivation to achieve success and avoid failures. Results: the motivation for avoiding failures was diagnosed in 5% male students and 10% female students. A direct correlation between achievement motivation and the attitude of schoolchildren and students towards independent sports activities and passing control standards has been revealed. Conclusions: there are no differences in the correlation between the relationship between achievement motivation and attitudes toward independent sports by gender. Schoolchildren and students with motivation to achieve regular self-exercise.

Schoolchildren and students with a pronounced motivation for avoiding failures prefer a passive way of life. They do not want to pass standards on the discipline \”Physical Education\” and do not go in for sports on their own.

Open access

Petr Schlegel and Adam Křehký

Summary

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) has become an independent sport discipline with its own distinctive aspects. It can no longer be perceived as before, as a compilation of other martial arts. MMA shows originality in training methods, health aspects, performance requirements or even moral-volitional qualities. The aim of the paper is to analyse the physiological aspects of MMA in both training and combat loads, to discuss the issue of injuries in MMA and to provide a comparison with other martial arts. Studies focusing directly on MMA wrestlers have been selected. These have included both amateur and professional athletes. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Scholar were used as sources. MMA ranks among sports with high-intensity workload, wrestlers achieve high levels of lactate and other metabolic markers. They need above-average aerobic capacity and perform well in upper body strength tests. Injury rates in MMA do not differ significantly from those in professional-level martial arts. Most injuries are associated with lacerations on the head. The requirements of extensive workload during performance must be reflected in training. Encouragement of aerobic and anaerobic endurance abilities in conjunction with optimum strength training seems crucial. It is essential to include prophylaxis as regards head concussions and strive for maximum safety of the sportsman during combat. Further research is required to confirm some of the conclusions, the limitations of which are due to the number and quality of the selected studies.

Open access

Tereza Nováková and Irena Čechovská

Summary

The text deals with neurophysiological and kinesiological developmental principles associated with the early development of young children as the fundamental prerequisites for physical education in the aquatic environment. Swimming in infancy and early childhood using the developmental principles and understanding of individual variability represent enormous potential to create a positive attitude of the child to exercise in aquatic environments. We believe that the experience with these basic tasks can play a key role in future exercise habits and swimming literacy of the individual. Parents attending infant swimming courses led by an instructor acquire practical skills and deeper insight into principles of their child's motor learning. All activities in the aquatic environment at an early age should allow transfer of child’s experiences to preswimming education and result in full swimming literacy.

Open access

Nikolas Nagy, Miroslav Holienka, Matej Babic, Jakub Michálek and Egon Kunzmann

Summary

The aim of this research was to make reference to the difference in heart rate values (HR) of soccer players in small-sided games (SSG) with various content focus. We assumed that the aim at the content in small-sided games would significantly affect the HR values of participating soccer players. The research group was comprised of players (n = 6) of the soccer club FK DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda (U15) at the age of 14 ± 0.7 years. The HR values were evaluated on the basis of collected data, which we obtained using sport testers and special software POLAR TEAM2. In order to find out the statistical significance of the difference in HR was used the One-Way ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 %. We found out that by the change of the small-sided game’s content focus, the internal reaction of players’ organism to training load was at different level. In the SSG3, with the emphasis on the improvement of individual’s final offensive game activity – shooting, was recorded the highest achieved HRavg value of the monitored players (181.83 ±7.11 beats.min−1). This form of the SSG was the most intense. However, there were no significant differences in HR values among the individual forms of the SSG. Our recommendation is to employ in the systematic training process small forms of small-sided games with various content focus, because by the means of it we can adequately prepare the players for the match load itself.