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Buddhist Monuments in South-Eastern India: A Study of Forms and Patronage

Abstract

The advent of Buddhism in India is usually dated back to 6th century BCE. Siddhartha Goutama, a Sakya Prince left for quest of truth and reality of life. He was showered with the divine light of enlightenment, then, instead of keeping it to himself, Gautama preferred to enlighten others. The teachings preached and propounded by Gautama Buddha were warmly accepted by a large number of people and emerged as a new school of thought i.e. Buddhism which later turned into a major religion of the world and the Buddhist remains discovered through archaeological investigations help us to reconstruct our past. (Chakrabarti, 2006: 315) It is a well known fact that various the kings of different kingdoms like Magadha, Vaisali, the Sakayas, the Bullis, the Koliyas, the Mallas, the Moriyas and Kalinga (Ancient Odisha) sought for the relics of the Buddha after the parinirvana. (Kern, 1989: 46) The emperors, kings, traders and commoners extended patronage and built monuments, kept relics, offered gifts to pay ovation to the Master Teacher. This historical phenomenon is known from various forms of Buddhist monuments built across India. Odisha, a geographical orbit of South Eastern India, is fortunate to have received a good deal of Buddhist monuments and relics. This paper is intended to present an account of different forms of Buddhist monuments that have been discovered so far, such as Stupas, Chaitys, Monasteries under the possible patronage of Buddhism in this part of India from third century BCE to sixth-seventh century CE.

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Buddhist Remains of Boudh District: A Historical Study

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the Buddhist vestiges of Boudh District of Central Odisha. Emphasis has been laid on aspects like historical background, location of sites, literary references, colonial records pertaining to Buddhist sites of the locality, local tradition, rituals and other facets of the sites. Besides, an attempt is made to locate the sites along the Buddhist trail which even continued during the British regime. Besides, detailed study of the sites with cultural remains and sporadic findings of Buddhist sculptures have been cited to draw a holistic picture of Buddhist remains in the district.

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The Doctrine of Not-self (anattā) in Early Buddhism

Abstract

Anattā or the Not-Self is a very important concept of Buddhism, which distinguishes it from other religions. there are some ways to explain this doctrine and many debates were happened between Buddhist schools and between Buddhists and the Brahmanists on this issue. Early Buddhism analyse that self is the combination of five aggregates (skandhas), and each of them is not the self. Based on this explanation, Buddhists think wrongly that anattā is ‘No-self. Deeply understand and practice of the not-self concept will help practitioners of Buddhism to be free from all sufferings. So, one needs to have a clear understanding on this concept. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive view of Not-self (anattā) doctrine in Early Buddhism. All its related aspects are presented in succession. This article investigates the doctrine of anattā, it is also examined with other related doctrines in Early Buddhism. By analyzing method, the meaning of Not-self (anattā) in Early Buddhism is proposed by the author. (//https:www.abebooks.de/buchsuchen/titel/anatta/)

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Female Donors at Sārnāth: Issues of Gender, Endowments, and Autonomy

Abstract

Buddhism has different threads of traits to be explored and scrutinized. One of the important aspects is to know role and status of women in Buddhism through their visual representations in religious ceremonies, donations of the images, etc. The role, rank and implications of their participation in religious ceremonies is matter of inquiry. In particular, it is quite stimulating to know that their engagement in religious activities are egalitarian or highly gendered. Sārnāthwas intentionally chosen by the Buddha as the place of his first sermon and its importance in Buddhism became unforgettable till it was finally destroyed in the medieval period. The role of women in religious activities started in the age of the Buddha.This sacred complex shows the gender variances in ritualistic participation and donations. Here, the influence of Buddhism on women’s autonomy in spiritual/sacredengrossment is a subject of contemplation.

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Forms of Remuneration for Free Software Production: A Reducible Complexity

Abstract

How producers of free digital goods can be compensated for their labour is a major topic of debate and controversy in Free Software and related fields. This paper analytically disentangles the multiple modes of remuneration in operation in Free Software and presents the implications from a political economy perspective. The outlook of autonomous commons-based production in information goods is situated in relation to capitalism. In the process, certain conceptual contributions are made regarding the nature of information goods and the commodity form.

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Interpretation for Odisha’s ‘Buddhist Diamond’

Abstract

Cultural heritage tourism in India is growing and it is changing. In Odisha, the archaeological sites of four early Buddhist monasteries are being promoted as a set of attractions. Presentation of monuments entails, first, preservation and then interpretation. Effective interpretation has to take account of the visitors. A case study is made of visitor management and interpretation at Lalitagiri. The measures for preservation there are good but there is little provision for interpretation, even in the new museum. It can no longer be assumed that visitors have the background to understand the original contexts of the displays. Without that, they can hardly make adequate sense of what is presented. Options for improving the quality of interpretation are assessed.

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Labour Relations and Labour Structures in Mediterranean Capitalism. Caporalato and Romanian Migration in the Southern Italian Agriculture

Abstract

In this paper I will examine the structural and social features of the gang-mastered labour system (caporalato) as it appears in the agricultural production process in Italy. I will discuss the functions of this type of labour regime through an analysis of the role (Romanian) migrant labour plays in the Italian agriculture process and its need for the (informal) labour market mediation in agriculture. My aim is to critically map the function of caporalato within a production circuit that starts with the low price imposed on agricultural goods, and ends up at the top of the production process, namely with the food empires and corporate retail and distribution chains. The economic constraint for an ever cheaper labourforce, and its social context, will guide our critique of caporalato

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Making Borobudur a Buddhist Religious Tourist Destination: an Effort to Preserve Buddhist Temples in Indonesia

Abstract

Borobudur Temple is designated as one of the new excellent destinations by the government in an effort to increase foreign exchange. In line with the increasing number of visitors to the Borobudur Temple, it also increased the threat to the sustainability of the site. This research is conducted to provide alternative solutions for the management of Borobudur temple that pay attention to its sustainability. Data used are from various published and unpublished research results. Content analysis with interpretive approach is used to analyze the research data. The change of management paradigm of Borobudur Temple becomes a must. The paradigm of sustainable tourism is an appropriate alternative if applied in the largest Buddhist temple in the world. Changing the theme of heritage tourism destinations into heritage tourism destinations, spiritual and religious will help the sustainability of Borobudur Temple. As a site related to Buddhism, its sustainability is a shared responsibility of Buddhists.

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