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An Account of the Works of Nektarios Protopsaltis and Nektarios Frimu in Manuscript no. 7 from the “Dumitru Staniloae” Ecumenical Library of the Metropolitan Church of Moldavia and Bukovina

Abstract

The “Dumitru Staniloae” Ecumenical Library of the Metropolitan Church of Moldavia and Bukovina (reffered to below as LMCMB) from Iasi has an invaluable collection of theological books and documents, consisting of more than 100,000 items. The library also has an important number of rare books – 35 of which are psaltic music manuscripts. Manuscript no. 7 from LMCMB is a psaltic Antologhion with Chrysantine notation, written in Romanian using the Cyrillic alphabet. The copyist and the place where it was copied are unknown, but it is possible that it was written at Mount Athos, between 1877 and 1882 (Apud Bucescu, 2009, p. 108). Manuscript no. 7 mainly contains chants for various services, translated and adapted by Nektarios Protopsaltes (1804-1899). Nektarios was one of the best known psalm singers and Romanian composers, founder of a psaltic music school, who was active at the Holy Mountain in the second half of the nineteenth century. Manuscript no. 7 also contains a rarer variant of the Doxastikon Lord, the fallen woman, attributed to another Moldavian composer – Nektarios Frimu (†1856). Like Nektarios Protopsaltis, he was also born in Husi (Moldavia, Romania) – but lived and worked in Iasi. For his achievements, he is honoured with the title of “hierarch of Tripoleos”. He authored the Anthology – Collection of psaltic chants for the Liturgy, (1840) and Collection of Psaltic Chants for Vespers and Matins (1846), one of the first works of its kind in Chrysantine notation in the Romanian language; these volumes were greatly valued during the second half of the nineteenth century. The present paper, which is part of the ampler project of cataloguing the entire collection of psaltic music manuscripts from LMCMB, focuses on the codicological presentation of the manuscript and its musical and liturgical content. The work will also present the authors, the Greek sources the chants were based on, also emphasizing the importance of this codex in the context of the LMCMB collection.

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Active Learning and Development of Design Thinking Ability at Students

Abstract

The paper analyzes paradigms that highlight the role of active teaching and active learning methods in developing the skills for the professional and social life of the students. The first chapter of the paper argues the need to develop social and creative abilities that lead students to competence in design thinking. Successful response of the student to the demands of professional and social life requires skills like empathy, assertiveness, cooperation, problem solving, implementation of innovative solutions. Ability of design thinking involves a divergent thinking, ability to autonomously design their own strategies in relation to personal development needs, self-assertion and prosocial project development. The training of these skills is possible if the educational environment is one that offers stimulating techniques, adequately prepared human resources, social training contexts. Interactive teaching enables the student to act independently, to be capable of self-management and personal development. The proactive creativity of teachers facilitates active learning methods which will lead to students developing empathy, assertiveness and competence in design thinking.

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Analyst vs Performer. The Importance of Studying The Music Analysis Discipline for The Development of Critical-Analytical Thinking of Perfomer Students

Abstract

In the music higher education, the appearance of a concept of incompatibility between the performance practice and the studentsʼ theoretical and analytical training is a phenomenon with multiple consequences on their training, on the way of organizing a curriculum and a hierarchical deformed attitude on the different subjects in the curriculum.This study summarizes some of the arguments that emphasize the role played by the study of the Music Analysis in developing the musicianʼs ability to understand music from the perspective of the compositional conception, to discover its importance as a stage in the formation of an original performance concept while highlighting the advantages of a collaborative approach between the two areas of training of the musician.

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Ancient Greek Myths in Romanian Opera. Pascal Bentoiu’s Jertfirea Ifigeniei [The Sacrifice of Iphigenia]

Abstract

Romanian composers’ interest in Greek mythology begins with Enescu’s peerless masterpiece – lyrical tragedy Oedipe (1921-1931). The realist-postromantic artistic concept is materialised in the insoluble link between text and music, in the original synthesis of the most expressive compositional means recorded in the tradition of the genre and the openness towards acutely modern elements of musical language. The Romanian opera composed in the knowledge of George Enescu’s score, which premiered in Bucharest in 1958, reflect an additional interest in mythological subject-matter in the poetic form of the ancient tragedies signed by Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles. Significant Romanian musical works written in the avant-garde period of 1960 to 1980 – Doru Popovici’s opera Prometeu, Aurel Stroe’s Oedipus at Colonus, Oresteia I – Agamemnon, Oresteia IIThe Choephori, Oresteia III – The Eumenides, Pascal Bentoiu’s The Sacrifice of Iphigenia – to which titles of the contemporary art of the stage are added – Cornel Ţăranu’s Oreste & Oedip – propose new philosophical and artistic interpretations of the original myths. At the same time, the mentioned works represent reference points of the multiple and radical transformation of the opera genre in Romanian culture. Emphasising the epic character, a heightened chamber dimension and the alternative extrapolation of the elements in the syncretic complex, developing new modes of performance, of sonic and video transmission – are features of the new style of opera associated to the powerful and simple subject-matter of ancient tragedy. In this sense, radio opera The Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1968) is a significant step in the metamorphosis of the genre, its novel artistic value being confirmed by an important international distinction offered to composer Pascal Bentoiu – Prix Italia of the Italian Radio and Television Broadcasting Company in Rome. The poetic quality of the text quoted from the masterpiece of ancient theatre, Euripides’ Iphigenia in Aulis, the hymnic-oratory character of the music, the economy and expressive capacity of the compositional means configured in the relationship between voice, organ, percussion, electro-acoustic means – can be associated in interpreting the universal major theme: the necessity of virgin sacrifice in the process of durable construction.

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Areas of Artistic Education in Early Education: Theoretical References

Abstract

The article describes conceptual aspects related to the artistic tendencies in preschool education.The realization of this process is presented by operating with the concepts of the famous occidental, Russian and local scientists. One of the ideas characteristic to the scientists’ pedagogical thinking is that in the process of formation/development of the child through arts, the child is submitting the objects and phenomena to his/her previously acquired assimilation schemes. To insure integrity in the practical way of the early education, the methodology we are proposingis based on a research, a significant theoretical network ofsuccessful pedagogical practicesof word known scientists. The analyzed theories are a source of inspiration and constitute the theoretical universe which contributes to as-truthful-as-possible preschool educationof the child.Early education is the most important period in one’s life through the sustainable consequences it has on his/her ultimate development.

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Arias, Recitatives, Duets and Vocal Ensembles in The Opera Don Pasquale by Gaetano Donizetti

Abstract

A musical inspiration, Don Pasqule by Gaetano Donizetti offers a wealth of examples of how to capitalize on the vocal and musical potential offered by the opera show. We aim to analyze vocal scores - areas, duets, recitatives and vocal ensembles and to emphasize their musical achievement.

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Art and Meaning. Messiaen Influences on Romanian Composition Universes

Abstract

In this paper, we will tackle several dominant Messiaen influences, as concerns ideas and/or technical approaches, on important Romanian composition systems, with reference to concepts such as musical character, number, Time/time, repetition. We will refer to characters as structures, characters as tuning systems and characters as musical/cultural paradigms as they occur in Aurel Stroe’s creation, and then we will turn our attention to Ștefan Niculescu’s melody-musical character with memory. Surprising but/and natural, objective but/and inspired, Niculescu opens up different perspectives on the personality of musical character as well. Numbers (what is fascinating is that they are mainly just figures) prove to be an example of simplicity as they comprise in a condensed manner technical information, emotions and musical inspiration. We will prove/illustrate this relying on three technical/semantic perspectives: poetry of numbers-duration in Liviu Glodeanu’s creation, numbers defining dodecaphonic series cells in Roman Vlad’s work, or numbers-foundation for the whole modal edifice in Vieru’s perspective. As for time/Time, which is the main character of Messiaen’s (and actually everyone’s, even humanity’s) musical, poetic, philosophical and theological thinking, we will only dwell on two hypostases, namely Stroe’s and Niculescu’s perspectives. Stroe conceives time as an element integrated in the sphere of memory and identity, as the recurrence in the present time of slices of memories involves the superposing of slices of time. For Niculescu, time is foundation, a condensation of the fact that syntax relies on two temporal categories, succesivity and simultaneity. We will dwell on the repetition “character” in the context of Aurel Stroe’s mobiles, or in parts of monodies of periodicities, screens and loops in Anatol Vieru’s creation. The conclusions will naturally follow the line of art and meaning.

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Art - Subject - Object in Artistic and Plastic Creativity of Pupils and Students in Artistic Education

Abstract

The modernization of higher education in the field of plastic arts methodology, the improvement and development of the educational methodology, as well as the professional rise of the teachers are the key issues in raising the level of creativity of the future plastic art teachers in the context of the new requirements of artistic training. The volume of creative knowledge and skills varies from one person to another; it is our permanent intention to know and understand creativity, to demonstrate the laws of artistic and plastic creativity, to create a logical theory through which personality can be developed creatively, thus contributing to the complex process of the student’s artistic activity. Art contributes to the development of the artistic creativity of pupils / students, constituting a source of knowledge of national and universal culture through the many methodological, plastic and technological varieties specific to art, which offer vast possibilities to create a creative product of artistic, aesthetic and cultural value. The development of creative writing skills initially involves a visual experience, followed by the stages specific to the creative process in the field of fine arts and is finalized by a material form of the creative product, obtained through specific means in the field of fine arts.

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Artistic and Educational Projects – Perspectives in Non-Formal Education. A Case Study

Abstract

The present article aims to analyze the impact of artistic and educational projects from the perspective of non-formal education. This will be done with the help of a case study that brings forth the aforementioned elements in order to improve the educational standards of the students that participate in these projects. Also, here will be detailed the specific objectives of the projects in this category and the impact imprinted on the target groups as well as the implementation manners of the objectives themselves, by following the factors that stimulate creativity and the degree of young people involvement in this project.

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Artistic Education/Education Through Art in Contemporary School from A Transdisciplinary Perspective

Abstract

Man is the only being that lives in the world not only biologically, but also spiritually, essentially due to education, which is permanent, continuous, omnipresent and creates values. Lifelong education represents an organizational and philosophic principle which requires that lifelong education throughout a person’s existence determines each individual to develop his/her personality with the help of a complex system of means, which must meet his/her educational and cultural needs and ambitions. Art is the fundamental dimension of education that uses in the development of personality the educational potential of the aesthetic, social and natural beauty.

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