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Open access

Ivaylo Sirakov, Katya Velichkova, Stefka Stoyanova, Georgi Zhelyazkov and Yordan Staykov

Abstract

The aim of the current study was to test the effect of a diet supplemented with dandelion’s (Taraxacum officinale) extract on the productive traits and blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultivated in an recirculation aquaculture system. The carps were cultivated at a stocking density of 7.2 kg/m3 in recirculation aquaculture system. The fish were split into the following two experimental groups: DF (the fish were fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract) and CF (the fish were fed with feed without supplementation). Common carp fed with a diet added with dandelion’s extract at a quantity of 0.8% from daily feed ratio, did not affect the hydrochemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity). The carps fed with feed supplemented with dandelion’s extract did not show better productive traits compared with these found for carp from the control variant. The carp from experimental groups had a higher survival rate, final weight, average individual weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR), respectively with 13.2%, 3.94%, 31.5% and 31.3%, compared with the average values of these parameters measured in individuals fed with the control feed, but the differences were not statistically significant (P≥0.05). Supplementation of feed with dandelion’s extract significantly decreased the plasma cholesterol (4.76%) and triglyceride (61.2%) content, promoting hypolipidemic status in fish (P≤0.05).

Open access

Rositsa Mileva

Abstract

A fast and sensitive HPLC method was validated in order to analyze doxycycline in plasma and milk of sheep and in plasma of rabbits. The samples were processed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). After the centrifugation step, a supernatant containing extracted doxycycline and internal standard oxytetracycline was injected into the HPLC system with PDA detection. The method showed linearity in the range of 0.125 - 2.5 μg/mL for ovine plasma, 0.125 – 5.0 μg/mL for ovine milk, and 0.125 – 1 μg/mL for rabbit plasma. The inter-assay precision varied between 5.69 – 13.55 %. Values for intraassay precision were between 0.62 – 8.67 %. Accuracy was higher than 90% in all of the tested concentrations in the three types of biological matrices. The mean extraction recovery was higher than 90 % for all matrices. In order to handle only with free drug concentrations, microfiltration of standard solutions with low (0.25mg/mL), medium (0.5mg/mL) and high (1.0mg/mL) concentration was performed. A percentage for correction of the quantified doxycycline was calculated. The most significant adjustments should be made at the low concentrations. The correction for rabbit plasma is 24.63±5.03%, for ovine plasma is 20.10±8.01% and for milk –16.68±0.04 %. This method can be used for routine determination of doxycycline concentrations for pharmacokinetic studies and further dosage adjustment.

Open access

N. Geva and G. Štrkolcová

Abstract

Spirocerca lupi is a nematode causing spirocercosis disease that affects mostly carnivores and especially canidae. The life cycle of S. lupi includes a coprophagous beetle as an obligatory intermediate host and a variety of facultative paratenic hosts. In Israel, spirocercosis is considered to be a serious condition with a variety of clinical signs comprising a great risk to canine populations. The diagnosis at an early infective stage is unreliable and the vast majority of infected dogs are diagnosed only when the disease has advanced. In advanced stages of the disease, treatment is difficult and there is a high risk for complications. A study was carried out to compare the prevalence of S. lupi in the central region of Israel with a previous investigation and by that consequently try to estimate the efficacy of preventative treatment used nowadays in Israel. The study was done by the use of two different methods: looking for the infective larvae (L3) in the main intermediate host in Israel, Ontophagus sellatus, and searching for the eggs of S. lupi by performing flotation methods on faecal samples. Beetles and faecal samples were collected from four different locations in the winter and summer of 2017, 2018, and 2019. According to the literature review and collection of data from case studies, the prevalence of spirocercosis is increasing in Israel, despite the negative results from the dissections of beetles and faecal samples.

Open access

Marta Szweda, Andrzej Rychlik, Izabella Babińska and Andrzej Pomianowski

Abstract

The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme catalyses the first stage of biosynthesis of prostanoids, proteins that are implicated in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes accompanied by inflammation, pain and fever. Overexpression of COX-2 was determined in tumour tissues, which suggests that this enzyme participates in oncogenesis. In this paper the topics discussed are mechanisms regulating COX-2 expression, COX isoforms, their role in the body and the oncogenic mechanisms triggered by the overexpression of COX-2, including inhibition of apoptosis, intensification of neoangiogenesis, increased metastatic capacity, and weakening of the immune system. The significance of and the mechanisms by which COX-2 participates in oncogenesis have been studied intensively in recent years. The results are highly promising, and they expand our understanding of the complex processes and changes at the molecular, cellular and tissue level that promote oncogenesis and cancer progression. Notwithstanding the knowledge already gleaned, many processes and mechanisms have not yet been elucidated in human medicine and, in particular, in veterinary medicine. Further research is required to develop effective tumour diagnostic methods and treatment procedures for humans and animals.

Open access

Małgorzata Sobczak-Filipiak, Józef Szarek, Iwona Badurek, Jessica Padmanabhan, Piotr Trębacz, Monika Januchta-Kurmin and Marek Galanty

Abstract

Introduction: The clinical symptoms of portosystemic shunts (PSSs) and hepatic microvascular dysplasia (HMD) – portal vein hypoplasia (PVH) in dogs are similar. PSSs are abnormal vascular connections between the portal vein system and systemic veins. HMD is a very rare developmental vascular anomaly, recognisable during histopathological examination. The study aim was to assess the prevalence of HMD–PVH and hepatocellular and vascular pathologies in the liver. Material and Methods: Liver biopsies from 140 dogs (of different breeds and both sexes) arousing clinical suspicion of PSS were examined histopathologically. Results: An initial PSS diagnosis was confirmed in 125 dogs (89.29%). HMD–PVH was found in 12.32% of dogs, as an isolated disease in 9.29%, especially in Yorkshire terriers, and with extrahepatic PSS in 6.67%. Histopathological analysis of muscles around sublobular veins showed that HMD cases presented hypertrophy or hypertrophy with fibrosis. In 2.17% of all dogs with liver vascular developmental disorders calcification was visible around vessels (without correlation by degenerative changes in those vessels), suggesting prior onset of deep metabolic disorders. Clinical suspicion of PSS was also formed upon quite different pathological processes in young dogs. Conclusion: Histopathological findings diagnosed the type of vascular anomalies (PSS or HMD–PVH) or other pathological changes conclusively, therefore detailed hepatic histopathology is an indispensable component of the clinical diagnostic process.

Open access

Huseyin Bilgin Bilgic, Gulcan Kırlı Pekel, Murat Hosgor and Tulin Karagenc

Abstract

Among tick-borne diseases, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia piroplasm cause important diseases in dogs where the distributions of the pathogen, vector and host overlap. The primary aim of the present study was to detect the prevalence of Babesia spp. and E. canis using PCR and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay in a total of 379 samples comprising stray and owned dogs and to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of the two tests. Overall, 41.4% of dogs were infected with B. vogeli and/or E. canis as single (35.4%) and mixed (6.1%) infections. The majority of Babesia positive dogs (74.1%) were co-infected with E. canis. PCR detected a higher (P= 0.000) number of positivity in some provinces compared to RLB. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first molecular evidence for the existence of B. vogeli in the Aegean Region, Turkey. The present study pinpoints the distribution and prevalence of E. canis and B. vogeli in the Aegean region of Turkey as of 2004 and as such establishes a baseline. This is of pivotal importance for future studies aimed to demonstrate changes in the dynamics of E. canis and B. vogeli infections in the region.

Open access

I. Strapáč, Z. Bedlovičová and M. Baranová

Abstract

This study focused on the determination of non-specific proteolytic activity of edible spruce Morchella esculenta in water extract, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH = 7.5) extract and a suspension prepared from 200 mg DW (dry weight) of edible spruce in PBS solution (pH 7.5). A clear casein solution was used as a substrate. The absorbances were measured in quartz cuvettes at the wavelength of 280 nm against a blank with zero concentration of trypsin. Non-specific proteolytic activity was expressed as trypsin equivalents per kilogram of mushroom dry weight (mg.kg−1 DW). All of the extracts demonstrated non-specific enzymatic activity. The highest activity was observed in the PBS suspension and the lowest enzymatic activity was measured in the water extract of the Morchella esculenta fungi. The non-specific proteolytic activity decreased in the following order: PBS suspension extract (pH 7.5; 22.9 mg.kg−1 DW), followed by PBS extract (pH 7.5; 13.6 mg.kg−1 DW) and finally the water extract (10.94 mg.kg−1 DW).

Open access

J. Halušková, B. Holečková, J. Staničová and V. Verebová

Abstract

The epigenetic mechanisms represent a dynamic, reversible and heritable manner modulating gene expression during the life cycle of an animal organism. They generate the specific epigenetic marks which constitute so-called epigenome. One of the most studied epigenetic mechanisms/marks is DNA methylation which is, similarly as the whole epigenome, susceptible to environmental and nutritional influences. The aberrations of the DNA methylation profile may alter gene expression leading to pathologic consequences. Pesticides along with their pest-reducing effects may also negatively affect non-target organisms. In our preliminary study, we investigated an effect of the pesticide Mospilan on the DNA methylation of the bovine GSTP1 gene which plays an important role in the cell detoxification processes. The specific primers for the GSTP1 Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis were proposed and tested with the DNA from the Mospilan-treated bovine lymphocytes. It seems that the pesticide with the concentration of 100 µg.ml−1 did not induce DNA methylation changes in GSTP1 gene in bovine lymphocytes.

Open access

Alicja Stachura, Barbara Bojarojć-Nosowicz, Dariusz Kaczmarczyk and Ewa Kaczmarczyk

Abstract

Introduction: Numerous mutations in the bovine tumour necrosis factor receptor type two (TNF-RII) gene have been identified, but their biological consequences remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphism in the analysed loci of the bovine TNF-RII gene is linked with the size of cell subpopulations naturally infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) which serve important immune functions in the host. Material and Methods: Samples originated from 78 cows. Polymorphisms in the studied gene were determined by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. BLV infection was diagnosed by the immunofluorescence (IMF) technique and nested PCR. Cell subpopulations were immunophenotyped with IMF. Results: Similar and non-significant differences in the average percentages of TNFα+, IgM+TNFα+, and CD11b+TNFα+ cells infected with BLV were noted in individuals with various genotypes in the polymorphic sites g.-1646T > G and g.16534T > C of the TNF-RII gene, and significant differences in the percentages of these subpopulations were observed between selected microsatellite genotypes (g.16512CA(n)). Conclusion: STR polymorphism and the number of CA dinucleotide repeats in intron 1 of the TNF-RII gene influence the frequency of TNF+, CD11b+TNF+, and IgM+TNF+ subpopulations naturally infected with BLV. Polymorphism in the gene’s other two sites do not affect the size of these cell subpopulations.

Open access

Mariana Panayotova-Pencheva, Katerina Todorova and Vassilena Dakova

Abstract

Introduction: Pathomorphological changes in the lungs, stomach, and small intestines of wild boars infected with Metastrongylus spp., Ascarops strongylina, and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were investigated. Material and Methods: Dissection of 11 wild boars was performed, and parasitised organs were histologically investigated by common techniques. Results: Macroscopic lesions in the lungs infected with Metastrongyus spp. were seen within the apical parts of the large lobes, irregular in form, pale greyish in colour, and compact in consistency. The main pathohistological findings were: the presence of parasite forms, and lymphocytes and neutrophils in the lumen of bronchi and bronchioles, desquamation of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium, emphysema, thickening of alveolar septa, hyperaemia, alveolitis, infiltration of the interstitial tissue with giant cell, monocytes and eosinophils, and peribronchial and disseminated lymphoid hyperplasia. The principal observations accompanying infection with A. strongylina were inflammation and focal mucosal damage in the stomach, the latter clearly demarcated from the surrounding tissues. Severe injuries in the place of attachment of M. hirudinaceus to the wall of the small intestine were seen. Intestinal villi, underlying mucosa, and submucosa were destroyed, and an intense inflammatory reaction was present. Conclusion: The histopathological lesions showed wide diversity, varying from mild to severe; but none of them were lethal.