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Open access

Darja Kanduc

Abstract

This study investigates the hypothesis that cross-reactions may occur between human cardiac proteins and influenza antigens, thus possibly representing the molecular mechanism underlying influenzaassociated sudden unexpected death (SUD). Using titin protein as a research model, data were obtained on (1) the occurrence of the titin octapeptide AELLVLLE or its mimic AELLVALE in influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) sequences; (2) the immunological potential of AELLVLLE and its mimic AELLVALE; (3) the possible role of the flanking amino acid aa) context of the two octapeptide determinants in eliciting cross-reactivity between the human cardiac titin protein and HA antigens.

Open access

Aleksandra E. Mrozikiewicz, Anna Bogacz, Magdalena Barlik, Aleksandra Górska, Marlena Wolek and Małgorzata Kalak

Summary

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a chronic metabolic disease with multifactorial etiology. One of possible osteoporosis causes may be impairment of osteoclasts function which leads to increased bone resorption. This may be a result of many metabolic changes. It is believed that changes of folate-methionine metabolism in osteoporosis play an essential role in the etiology of this disease.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how polymorphisms of SLC19A1 and FOLR3 genes may play the key role in folate-methionine pathway and influence on the etiology of osteoporosis.

Results: The statistically overrepresentation of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) was observed in the control group compared to the osteopenia (34.9% in osteopenia vs. 37.8% in controls, p=0.025, OR=0.61). As to the SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism we have noted the statistically significant over-representation of wild-type GG genotype (35.8% vs. 26.2%, p=0.046, OR=1.57) and overrepresentation of wild-type G allele (56.9% vs. 50.2%, p=0.061, OR=1.31) in osteopenia group if compared to the controls.

Conclusions: In our study we shown the protective role of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) polymorphism to osteopenia progress and possible role of wild-type GG genotype and wild-type G allele of SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism in osteopenia development.

Open access

A. Tripathi, L. Wangchu and A. K. Trivedi

Summary

This work investigated the relationship of host size, seasons, and water quality parameters with the prevalence and intensity of Cornudiscoides agarwali on Mystus bleekeri collected from the Dikrong River in Arunachal Pradesh, India from February 2016 to January 2017. A total of 2760 specimens of C. agarwali were recovered from 114 individuals of M. bleekeri. The levels of mean intensity, but not the prevalence, of infection of C. agarwali were positively correlated with fish host size, peaking in the largest size class (45.20 ± 5.69 parasites/fish). The prevalence values had a statistically significant seasonal trend, reaching highest (100 %) during the pre-monsoon season, followed by 91.8% during the post-monsoon period and 87.5 % during the monsoon season. The levels of mean intensity of infection were also dependent on the seasons, reaching significantly higher levels during the pre-monsoon season (42.75 ± 4.18 parasites/fish). All water quality parameters measured were within the safety value recommended for freshwater aquaculture. Cornudiscoides agarwali maintained its prevalence above 87.5 % throughout the annual cycle, which means it was able to reproduce year-round in a non-polluted river. This could be an indication of monogenoidean community and population dynamics thriving best under optimum water quality parameters. Also, this article draws the attention of parasitologists and ichthyologists to a taxonomic problem of the misidentification of Mystus spp., and therefore, possibly of their parasitic monogenoids.

Open access

S. Sadet Canakoglu, S. Simsek, I. Balkaya and S. Gunyakti Kilinc

Summary

Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a common parasitic disease of livestock especially sheep and cattle. In this study molecular characterization of β-tubulin isotype 3 gene in Fasciola hepatica isolates from cattle and sheep in Turkey was carried out. For this purpose a total of 80 adult Fasciola hepatica isolates were collected from 20 sheep and 20 cattle in Kayseri and Erzurum provinces. PCR-RFLP was performed on β-tubulin isotype 3 gene and MboII revealed two fragments of approximately 350 bp and 390 bp, whereas HphI enzyme yielded 210, 340 and 540 bp bands, HindII yielded 380 and 450 bp bands in all samples. A total of 80 isolates were tested by SSCP and all of them presented the same band profiles. Six samples (4 sheep and 2 cattle) were randomly selected and DNA sequence of a 935 bp coding fragment of β-tubulin isotype 3 was performed. Sheep samples were more polymorphic than the cattle. This β-tubulin isotype 3 gene polymorphism of F.hepatica isolates from sheep and cattle of two distinct geographical areas of Turkey have been investigated for the first time.

Open access

R. K. Schuster

Summary

During a survey on tapeworm larval stages in Artemia franciscana from an artificial pond in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, a high prevalence of Eurycestus avoceti-like cysticercoids was established. Adult male and female crustaceans showed a prevalence of 61.9 and 62.7 %, respectively. The intensity ranged from one to four and one to three cyst, respectively. Out of 215 examined cysticercoids, 207 specimens had morphological features matching with E. avoceti. The flaky structure of the surrounding capsule, the elongated shape of the cysticercoid and the larger number of hooklets on the suckers suggest that the eight further larval cestodes belonged to another species of the genus Eurycestus.

Open access

J. S. Dar, B. A. Ganai, R. A. Shahardar and U. R. Zargar

Summary

The control of the digenetic trematode Fasciola gigantica has been the major challenge in both cattle and small ruminants as there is a paucity of an effective and commercial vaccine. Thus, the accurate identification and prepatent diagnosis of F. gigantica is an essential prerequisite for its successful prevention and control. In the present study, the morphologically identified specimens isolated from the liver and bile ducts of sheep (Ovis aries) were validated through molecular data. The sequence analysis of ITS-2 of our isolates showed high degree of similarity with F. gigantica and F. hepatica using BLAST function of NCBI. The phylogenetic analysis of our isolates showed a close relationship with previously described F. gigantica and F. hepatica isolates from different countries. The antigenic profile of somatic and E/S antigens of F. gigantica were revealed by SDS–PAGE and immunoblotting using sera from sheep naturally infected with F. gigantica. By SDS-PAGE, 20 distinct bands were revealed from crude somatic fraction. Immunoblotting analysis of these proteins with positive sera exhibited 8 sero-reactive bands ranging from 14 to 97 kDa. Among these 38 and 44 kDa bands were quite specific with high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. The E/S fraction comprised 7 distinct bands, as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Immunoblotting analysis of these proteins with positive sera exhibited 6 antigenic bands ranging from 23 – 54 kDa. Among these 27 and 33 kDa were found to be quite specific with high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. The present study concludes that the protein bands of 38 and 44 kDa in somatic fraction and 27 and 33 kDa in E/S fraction can be used for the immunodiagnostic purpose for this economically important parasite, which may also entice further studies regarding their vaccine potential.

Open access

A. Güven and T. Öztürk

Summary

The metazoan parasites were investigated of two flatfish the common sole, Solea solea (n:140) and the scaldfish, Arnoglossus laterna (n: 22) in the Sinop coast of Black Sea from June 2015 to June 2017. A total of 15 metazoan parasite species belonging to Digenea (6), Cestoda (3), Acanthocephala (1), Nematoda (4) and Isopoda (1) taxonomic groups were identified. Solea solea was found to be infected by Condylocotyla pilodora, Proctoeces maculatus, Opecoelidae gen. sp., Metadena sp., Stephanostomum sp., Progrillotia sp., Capillaria gracilis, Cucullanus campanae, Solearhynchus rhytidotes and Nerocila orbignyi. Arnoglossus laterna was found to be infected by Lecithochirium musculus and Grillotia erinaceus. Scolex pleuronectis, Hysterothylacium aduncum and Dichelyne minutus were determined in both flatfish. Infection prevalence and mean intensity values were re- corded for each parasite species. Infection values for each parasite species in relation to season and fish size were also determined and compared as comparatively. This study is the first one assessing the metazoan parasites both of S. solea and A. laterna collected from the Turkish coast of Black Sea. While Condylocotyle pilodora and Capillaria gracilis are new parasite records for S. solea, Grillotia erinecaus is new parasite record for A. laterna. Moreover, this paper is the first report on occurrence of Opecoelidae gen. sp., Metadena and Stephanostomum genera in S. solea.

Open access

O. P. Kurnosova, M. V. Arisov and I. M. Odoyevskaya

Summary

A study screening pet animals (dogs, cats, chinchillas, ferrets, guinea pigs, rabbits, primates, reptiles, and hedgehogs) within Moscow city limits for intestinal parasitic diseases has been conducted over a period of 6 years. According to the study, parasitic infections caused by intestinal protozoa are found in pet animals more frequently than by intestinal helminths. Although dogs and cats exhibit the highest level of diversity of intestinal parasite species, in the group of exotic animals, helminth infection are found much less frequently and parasitic fauna is represented mostly by intestinal protozoa with a high percentage of mixed infection. The most widespread helminth infeсtion of dogs and cats is toxocarosis (respectively 2.5 and 5.7 %) and the most widespread protozoan infection is Giardia sp. (9.8 and 4.6 %). Giardia sp. was found in 47.4 % of chinchillas, Cryptosporidium sp. was more frequently found in ferrets (6.55 %), protozoa from the family Trichomonadida was found in guinea pigs (9 %), Eimeria sp. in rabbits (13.9 %), Acanthocephala in primates (15.7 %), and eggs from the generaOxyurida (59 %), along with protozoa from the family Trichomonadida, in reptiles. Capillaria sp. was most prevalent in hedgehogs (33.4 %). Acanthocephala eggs, as well as protozoa from the Giardia and Entamoeba genera, were more frequently found in primates. Parasites common to animals and humans, which may become a source of infection for the latter under certain conditions, have been identified in pet animals.

Open access

D. M. Amorim and R. W. Ávila

Summary

Climatic and ecological factors can influence the parasite load of a host. Variation in rainfall, body size, and sex of the hosts may be related to the abundance of parasites. This study investigated the helminth fauna associated with a population of Norops brasiliensis, together with the effect of host biology (sex, body size, and mass) and variation in rainfall regime on the abundance of helminths. Species of three groups of endoparasites were found (Nematoda, Cestoda, and Trematoda), with nematodes as the most representative taxa with eight species, prevalence of 63.2 %, mean intensity of 4.0 ± 0.58 (1 – 25), and mean abundance of 2.66 ± 0.44 (0 – 25). Nine helminth species are new host records for N. brasiliensis. The nematode Rhabdias sp. had the highest prevalence (53.3 %). There was no significant relationship between abundance of the trematode Mesocoelium monas and host sex or season, although the abundance of this parasite increased significantly with host body size and mass, while abundance of nematodes was related to season and host mass. This study increases the knowledge about the diversity of helminth fauna associated with N. brasiliensis, revealing infection levels of hosts from northeastern Brazil.