Browse

1 - 10 of 811 items :

Clear All
Effect of weight reduction on histological activity and fibrosis of lean nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patient

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Weight reduction has evidenced benefit on attenuation of histological activity and fibrosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but there is scarcity of data for lean NASH subgroup. We have designed this study to compare the effects of weight reduction on histological activity and fibrosis of lean and non-lean NASH.

Methods

We have included 20 lean and 20 non-lean histologically proven NASH patients. BMI < 25 kg/m2 was defined as non-lean. Informed consent was taken from each subject. All methods were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Moderate exercise along with dietary restriction was advised for both groups for weight reduction. After 1 year, 16 non-lean and 15 lean had completed second liver biopsy.

Results

Age, sex, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT), Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was similar in both groups. Steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) and fibrosis was similar in the two groups. In lean/non-lean group, any amount of weight reduction, ≥ 5% weight reduction and ≥ 7% weight reduction was found in respectively 8/11, 5/6 and 2/6 patients. In both lean and non-lean groups, weight reduction of any amount was associated with significant reduction of steatosis, ballooning and NAS, except lobular inflammation and fibrosis. In both groups, weight reduction of ≥ 5% was associated with significant reduction in NAS only. However, significant improvement in NAS was noted with ≥ 7% weight reduction in non-lean group only.

Conclusion

Smaller amount of weight reduction had the good benefit of improvement in all the segments of histological activity in both lean and non-lean NASH.

Open access
Elevated lactic acid during ketoacidosis: pathophysiology and management

Abstract

Lactic acidosis results from an acid-base balance disorder of the body due to an excess of lactic acid. It is frequently found in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care. The most common cause is type A, found in pathologies such as cardiogenic, septic and hypovolemic shock, trauma and severe hypoxemia. The type B is less common and arises without evidence of tissue hypoperfusion or shock. Divers etiologies have been described for this type of hyperlactatemia: Grand Mal seizures, liver failure, hematologic malignancies, congenital enzyme deficiencies, thiamine deficiencies and diabetes mellitus and also alcohol abuse, which may induce a lactic acid under-use or an increased production. The authors describe a rare complication of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), leading to a major and persistent expression of a type B lactic acidosis during ketoacidosis.

Open access
Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Gastroenterostomy: A Promising Alternative to Surgery

Abstract

Recently, with the advancement of techniques, endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies have shown distinct advantages, especially in relieving benign and malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), as well as in postoperative pancreaticobiliary diseases. Herein, we present five currently used approaches in endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) using lumenapposing biflanged metal stents (LAMS), along with several examples of LAMS-based EUS treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases. Compared with traditional treatment methods, EUS-guided procedures have – to some degree – shown higher success rates, both technical and clinical. Moreover, EUS-guided therapies reduce the risk of multiple surgical adverse events, including delayed gastric emptying, prolonged hospital stay, increased costs, and delay in cancer treatment. Particularly in terms of postoperative pancreaticobiliary diseases, EUS-guided therapy has assumed an essential role as a treatment option in cases where traditional methods are difficult to perform. Nevertheless, EUS-guided gastrointestinal procedures are still relatively new, with some clinical failures, and additional prospective clinical trials are warranted.

Open access
Treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia with high-dose colistin under continuous veno-venous hemofiltration

Abstract

Background and Objectives

High-dose colistin (COL) ensures adequate treatment of pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) but must be weighed against a higher risk of nephrotoxicity. Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) clears COL by filtering and membrane adsorption that permits to avoid dose accumulation and excessively high peak concentrations. We evaluated clinical/microbiological efficacy of the high-dose COL treatment under CVVH in patients with newly diagnosed MDR-GNB ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Methods

Observational cohort study in critically ill adult patients with MDR-GNB VAP. Colistimethate sodium (CMS) was administered as a 9 million international units (MIU) of loading dose followed by 3 × 4.5 MIU daily. CVVH was performed over a highly adsorptive membrane. Clinical and microbiological efficacies were assessed at the end of therapy. In survivors, serum creatinine level was evaluated before and at the end of therapy.

Results

Fourteen patients (8 male patients, aged 57 ± 14 years) were consecutively included. Isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 7, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 5, and other Enterobacteriaceae in 2 patients. A favorable clinical response was observed in 9 patients (64%). Full and presumed microbiological eradication was observed in 12 patients (86%). Two patients were diagnosed with Stage 1 acute kidney injury.

Conclusions

In patients with MDR-GNB VAP, CVVH may represent an interesting option to enable effective high-dose COL treatment.

Open access
Immunosuppressive treatment for peripheral neuropathies in Sjogren’s syndrome – a systematic review

Abstract

Background: Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is among the most frequent autoimmune diseases and one of its most severe extraglandular manifestations is peripheral neuropathy. There is no consensus about peripheral neuropathy treatment in SS. Our aim is to identify studies proving the efficiency of immunosuppressive treatment on peripheral neuropathies in SS.

Methods: The search was conducted on the PubMed (MEDLINE) database. Studies with patients diagnosed with SS and peripheral neuropathy were included. Treatment with one of the following was among inclusion criteria: glucocorticoids (GC), rituximab (RTX), azathioprine (AZA), mycophenolic acid (MMF), cyclophosphamide (CP), methotrexate (MTX), plasmapheresis or iv immunoglobulins (IV IG).

Results: A total of 116 results were found and abstracts were examined. 103 papers were excluded, and the remaining 13 papers were analyzed. They were 3 case series and 10 case reports, retrospective, totalizing 62 patients of which 22 (35,5%) received IV IG, 8 (13%) received RTX, 7 (11%) CP, and 5 (8%) received only GC. Drug associations containing corticosteroids were frequent. Of those 22 treated with IV IG, 18 patients improved (82%), and 4 stabilized (18%).

IV IG was useful in sensory, motor and sensorimotor neuropathies. CP had good results in mononeuritis multiplex, while autonomic neuropathies responded well to GC or RTX. AZA, RTX, MTX, MMF or plasmapheresis were not used alone. Follow-up periods were heterogenous and the evaluation of the neuropathy was not systematic.

Conclusion: There is only low level evidence (retrospective case reports and case series). In most cases, IV IG treatment in patients with peripheral neuropathies and SS resulted in clinical improvement, while other therapies, such as RTX, corticosteroids and CP proved to be useful in a handful of cases.

Open access
The changing pattern of fever of unknown origin in the Republic of North Macedonia

Abstract

Introduction. The study aimed to compare the etiologic spectrum of diseases causing fever of unknown origin (FUO) and methods for definitive diagnosis in a tertiary care hospital in the Republic of North Macedonia during two different time periods.

Patients and methods. There were analysed retrospectively the causes for FUO and final diagnostic approaches in 185 patients with classic FUO that were treated at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Skopje during two time periods. Seventy nine patients were treated during 1991 to 1995 and 106 patients during 2011 to 2015.

Results. When comparing these two periods, infections were present in 46.8% and 29.2% (p = 0.014), non-infective inflammatory disorders in 22.8% and 25.5% (p = 0.674), neoplasms in 10.1% and 13.2% (p = 0.522), miscellaneous in 8.9% and 12.3% (p = 0.461) and undiagnosed cases in 11.4% and 19.8% (p = 0.124), respectively. The most common causes for FUO during the first period were abscesses (8.9%), tuberculosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (7.6% each), whereas in the second period the commonest causes were adult onset Still disease and solid organ neoplasm (7.6% each), polymyalgia rheumatica, abscesses and visceral leishmaniasis (5.7% each). The newer imaging techniques and clinical course evaluation had superior diagnostic significance during the second period.

Conclusion. A changing pattern of diseases causing FUO during the examined periods was evident. Infections continue to be the most common cause but with decreasing incidence when compared to 20 years ago. Even nowadays clinical evaluation and follow-up still remain the vital diagnostic tools in determining the etiology of FUO.

Open access
Crowned dens syndrome presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO)

Abstract

Background. Deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the cervical spine around the odontoid process may lead to neck pain and fever. This condition is called crowned dens syndrome (CDS).

Case report. An 89-year-old female presented with complaints of fever for one-month duration and recent onset neck pain. During her admission, she developed right knee pain with evidence of chondrocalcinosis on X-ray. Considering her clinical presentation in setting of pseudogout, she had a CT scan of her neck that revealed erosion of the dens and hyperdense soft tissue surrounding the odontoid process. Based on her clinical and radiologic presentation, she was diagnosed with crowned dens syndrome and started on NSAIDs. Unfortunately, she did not respond to NSAIDs and was switched to Colchicine, which resulted in immediate improvement in her symptoms.

Conclusions. We present this case to stress the importance of keeping crowned dens syndrome as one of the differentials in an elderly patient presenting with fever and neck pain.

Open access