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Factors affecting voice quality in early glottic cancer before and after radiotherapy

Abstract

Background

Radiotherapy (RT) is a successful mode of treatment for early glottic cancer. The aim of the study was to assess voice quality both before and 3 months after successful RT using multimodal methods while also identifying the factors affecting it.

Patients and methods

In 50 patients with T1 glottic carcinoma, the subjective (patients’ assessment of voice quality [VAS], Voice Handicap Index [VHI] questionnaire, phoniatricians’ assessment using the grade/roughness/ breathiness [GRB] scale), and objective assessments (fundamental laryngeal frequency [F0], jitter, shimmer, maximum phonation time [MPT]) of voice quality were performed before RT and 3 months post-RT. The data on gender, age, extent of the tumors, biopsy types, smoking, local findings, and RT were obtained from the medical documentation.

Results

Three months after the treatment, VAS, VHI, G and R scores, F0, and MPT significantly improved in comparison with their assessment prior to treatment. Before the treatment, the involvement of the anterior commissure significantly deteriorated jitter (p = 0.044) and the involvement of both vocal folds deteriorated jitter (p = 0.003) and shimmer (p = 0.007). After the RT, F0 was significantly higher in the patients with repeated biopsy than in the others (p = 0.047). In patients with post-RT changes, the B score was significantly higher than in those without post-RT changes (p = 0.029).

Conclusions

Voice quality already significantly improved three months after the treatment of glottic cancer. The main reason for the decreased voice quality prior to treatment is the tumor’s extent. Post-RT laryngeal changes and repeated biopsies caused more scarring on vocal folds adversely influencing voice quality after the treatment.

Open access
LncRNA PVT1 promotes proliferation and invasion through enhancing Smad3 expression by sponging miR-140-5p in cervical cancer

Abstract

Background

Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies among females worldwide. Increasing evidence have indicated the participation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. Our present study was conducted to explore the effects of lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on the progression of cervical cancer and the underlying mechanisms.

Materials and methods

Expressions of PVT1, miR-140-5p and Smad3 in cervical cancer cell lines were detected by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assays were used to elucidate the potential correlations between PVT1, miR-140-5p and Smad3. The roles of PVT1 on the progression of cervical cancer cells were determined by transfecting sh-RNA through series function assays such as colony formation assay, wound healing assay, transwell assay.

Results

PVT1 and Smad3 were upregulated, and miR-140-5p was downregulated in cervical cancer cells. PVT1 could bind directly with miR-140-5p, and Smad3 was a downstream target of miR-140-5p. Inhibition of PVT1 could enhance expression of miR-140-5p, inhibit the expression of Smad3, significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion in cervical cancer cells. While transfection of miR-140-5p inhibitor could partially reverse the above changes in cervical cancer cells.

Conclusions

The results revealed that PVT1 could promote the proliferation and metastasis via increasing the Smad3 expression by sponging miR-140-5p, which might be a promising prognostic and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

Open access
Effect of weight reduction on histological activity and fibrosis of lean nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patient

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Weight reduction has evidenced benefit on attenuation of histological activity and fibrosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but there is scarcity of data for lean NASH subgroup. We have designed this study to compare the effects of weight reduction on histological activity and fibrosis of lean and non-lean NASH.

Methods

We have included 20 lean and 20 non-lean histologically proven NASH patients. BMI < 25 kg/m2 was defined as non-lean. Informed consent was taken from each subject. All methods were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Moderate exercise along with dietary restriction was advised for both groups for weight reduction. After 1 year, 16 non-lean and 15 lean had completed second liver biopsy.

Results

Age, sex, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT), Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was similar in both groups. Steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) and fibrosis was similar in the two groups. In lean/non-lean group, any amount of weight reduction, ≥ 5% weight reduction and ≥ 7% weight reduction was found in respectively 8/11, 5/6 and 2/6 patients. In both lean and non-lean groups, weight reduction of any amount was associated with significant reduction of steatosis, ballooning and NAS, except lobular inflammation and fibrosis. In both groups, weight reduction of ≥ 5% was associated with significant reduction in NAS only. However, significant improvement in NAS was noted with ≥ 7% weight reduction in non-lean group only.

Conclusion

Smaller amount of weight reduction had the good benefit of improvement in all the segments of histological activity in both lean and non-lean NASH.

Open access
Elevated lactic acid during ketoacidosis: pathophysiology and management

Abstract

Lactic acidosis results from an acid-base balance disorder of the body due to an excess of lactic acid. It is frequently found in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care. The most common cause is type A, found in pathologies such as cardiogenic, septic and hypovolemic shock, trauma and severe hypoxemia. The type B is less common and arises without evidence of tissue hypoperfusion or shock. Divers etiologies have been described for this type of hyperlactatemia: Grand Mal seizures, liver failure, hematologic malignancies, congenital enzyme deficiencies, thiamine deficiencies and diabetes mellitus and also alcohol abuse, which may induce a lactic acid under-use or an increased production. The authors describe a rare complication of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), leading to a major and persistent expression of a type B lactic acidosis during ketoacidosis.

Open access
Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Gastroenterostomy: A Promising Alternative to Surgery

Abstract

Recently, with the advancement of techniques, endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies have shown distinct advantages, especially in relieving benign and malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), as well as in postoperative pancreaticobiliary diseases. Herein, we present five currently used approaches in endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) using lumenapposing biflanged metal stents (LAMS), along with several examples of LAMS-based EUS treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases. Compared with traditional treatment methods, EUS-guided procedures have – to some degree – shown higher success rates, both technical and clinical. Moreover, EUS-guided therapies reduce the risk of multiple surgical adverse events, including delayed gastric emptying, prolonged hospital stay, increased costs, and delay in cancer treatment. Particularly in terms of postoperative pancreaticobiliary diseases, EUS-guided therapy has assumed an essential role as a treatment option in cases where traditional methods are difficult to perform. Nevertheless, EUS-guided gastrointestinal procedures are still relatively new, with some clinical failures, and additional prospective clinical trials are warranted.

Open access
Treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia with high-dose colistin under continuous veno-venous hemofiltration

Abstract

Background and Objectives

High-dose colistin (COL) ensures adequate treatment of pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) but must be weighed against a higher risk of nephrotoxicity. Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) clears COL by filtering and membrane adsorption that permits to avoid dose accumulation and excessively high peak concentrations. We evaluated clinical/microbiological efficacy of the high-dose COL treatment under CVVH in patients with newly diagnosed MDR-GNB ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Methods

Observational cohort study in critically ill adult patients with MDR-GNB VAP. Colistimethate sodium (CMS) was administered as a 9 million international units (MIU) of loading dose followed by 3 × 4.5 MIU daily. CVVH was performed over a highly adsorptive membrane. Clinical and microbiological efficacies were assessed at the end of therapy. In survivors, serum creatinine level was evaluated before and at the end of therapy.

Results

Fourteen patients (8 male patients, aged 57 ± 14 years) were consecutively included. Isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 7, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 5, and other Enterobacteriaceae in 2 patients. A favorable clinical response was observed in 9 patients (64%). Full and presumed microbiological eradication was observed in 12 patients (86%). Two patients were diagnosed with Stage 1 acute kidney injury.

Conclusions

In patients with MDR-GNB VAP, CVVH may represent an interesting option to enable effective high-dose COL treatment.

Open access
Open access