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Analysis of health behaviors and the significance of health among occupationally-active persons

Abstract

Introduction. Health is a positive and superior value for every human being, which we want to maintain and reinforce. Health initiative skills should be developed not only in the adolescence phase, but also in the period of active participation in occupational and private life. Today, important recipients of all educational and health-promoting activities are occupationally-active persons, who reflect the state of health of the whole society through their own state of health.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the health behavior of working persons and to obtain opinions on the value of health among occupationally-active persons.

Material and methods. The studies were conducted among working people who, in the months from February to March 2018, reported for periodic examinations to an Occupational Medicine Outpatient Clinic in a Nonpublic Healthcare Facility in Kielce. Two standardized questionnaires were used in the study: The Health Behavior Inventory and the List of Health Criteria.

Results. Women score higher on the HBI scale than men. In addition, education proved to be an important determinant of health behaviors. Respondents with primary education present a lower level of health behaviors than those with higher education. The analysis of our own studies shows that the respondents attach the highest importance to health defined as a state, a property and a purpose. For the respondents, being healthy means: “to feel good”, “not to feel any pain”, “to have all parts of the body in good condition”, “to accept oneself and know one’s capabilities” or “not to come down with illnesses, maybe with flu or indigestion at most”.

Conclusions. The main activities of long-term health education in the workplace should take into account the individual needs of workers, especially those elements which, in the workers’ assessment, constitute their own definition of health and health determinants.

Open access
The battle with uneven opponent – Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Abstract

SIDS is one of the biggest problems of modern medicine. In the diagnosis of SIDS, we take into account all possible diseases that may be the cause of death, as well as factors indicating an accident or murder. The etiology of SIDS is not yet known. There are several pathogenetic concepts, most of which refer to pathophysiological changes associated with nervous system hypoplasia. The most important risk factors include the effects of tobacco smoke, obstetric history, and incorrect sleep position. The role of risk factors in the pathogenesis of SIDS and their interdependence is still the subject of many studies. There are many theories developed on this subject, but none have been supported by scientific research and which is extremely difficult to carry out in this group of newborns. In most cases, medical help finds a newborn already dead, so it is difficult to say what is the main cause or marker of cot death. A considerable success in preventing the onset of sudden infant death syndrome turned out to be educational campaigns for parents - in order to follow up, an information leaflet was prepared with the basic recommendations in the prevention of SIDS. Among the parents of newborn children there are still many controversial opinions about risk factors in the onset of sudden infant death syndrome, the article contains and explains the meaning of individual activities that are considered to predispose to SIDS.

Open access
Cultural context of nursing in the field of outpatient healthcare in Serbia

Abstract

Introduction. Modern world map characterizes existence of pluralistic and multicultural societies formed as a result of increased citizens’ mobility and globalization process. Cultural diversity realizes its implications in all the aspects of social functioning and in significant share through the system of healthcare. Accepting the concept of illness as a social construct, intercultural attitudes become leading principle of education and practice of healthcare workers at every level. By the nature of their profession, nurses in the primary healthcare institutions acquire key role in the process of implementation of inter-cultural principles in clinical practice, with the aim for the healthcare system to become more open and more sensitive to specific social occurrences and culturally driven healthcare need of its users.

Aim. The expected contribution of the work is oriented towards the possibility of theoretical and practical foundation of multidimensional and multi-perspective approach to healthcare.

Discussion. The discourse of the cultural context of nursing in the field of outpatient healthcare in Serbia is based on the axiomatic assumption that illness is a social construct and that sociological and anthropological perspective can change the clinical practice. The work comprises basic cultural factors as a dynamic factor of health and illness, principles, elements and significance of cultural assessment of the patient in nursing practice; presents the differences in patient’s position within the Parsons concept and contemporary concept of post-modern approach to the patient. Cultural concept of nursing in Serbia has been analyzed through the prism of “5D Cultural model” by Dr. Geert Hofsted with presentation and interpretation of its basic dimensions.

Conclusions. Healthcare system in Serbia is facing challenges of reforms – the introduction of socio-cultural aspect in creating of primary healthcare policy in the spirit of modern multicultural social tendencies. Aiming to provide quality healthcare it is necessary to understand how a society acknowledges the terms of health and illness and which cultural aspects lies in the base of individual’s behavior. If one healthcare is not founded upon cultural values then it is impossible to achieve its therapeutic goal, it will be incomplete and unsuccessful. The treatment plan and patient’s care must be individual, holistic and culturally appropriate.

Open access
Disease Knowledge and Treatment Adherence among Adult Patients with Thalassemia: A Cross-sectional Correlational Study

Abstract

Aim. To investigate the disease knowledge and treatment adherence among adult patients with thalassemia.

Material and methods. A cross-sectional correlational study was carried out with a convenience sample of 100 adult patients with thalassemia from a university teaching hospital in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The Disease Knowledge about Thalassemia Major, the Treatment Adherence Scale, and sociodemographic survey were completed by participants. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Descriptive and inferential statistics and Pearson correlations were performed.

Results. The participants had a moderate level of disease knowledge (M = 15.59, SD = 2.30) and a low level of treatment adherence (M = 3.91, SD = 1.83). There was also a weak but significant positive relationship between disease knowledge and treatment adherence (r = 0.297, P = 0.041). A significant difference in treatment adherence mean scores was found among participants with different monthly incomes (P = 0.05).

Conclusions. Knowledge gained from this study may be useful in improving nurses’ understanding of the effects of providing practical knowledge on treatment adherence. Educational strategies/interventions programs may be required to improve knowledge and adherence to treatment among thalassemia patients. Longitudinal studies are also needed to test for moderators and mediators of relationships of disease knowledge and treatment adherence.

Open access
Development of a point-of-care test to detect hepatitis B virus DNA threshold relevant for treatment indication

Abstract

Background

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been the most prevalent blood-borne pathogen wherein utero transmission has still not been properly managed. Recent practice guidelines suggested that an antiviral drug should be administered to third-trimester pregnancies with significant viremia (>2 × 105 IU/mL).

Objectives

To develop a novel turbidity-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with heat treatment DNA extraction method that is a rapid, cost-effective, and feasible viral load assessment and could be applied to antenatal screening.

Methods

Primers and reagents were designed, turbidity-based platform and heat treatment method were added, and evaluated for optimal efficiency. Assay sensitivity was tested from serially diluted standard HBV DNA. Assay specificity was tested with six standard viral DNAs. Clinical samples were analyzed and the results were compared with those of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) diagnostic records.

Results

The optimized condition was 60°C with no betaine, 1.4 mM deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and 6 mM of MgSO4 for 60 min. The assay accurately detected samples with standard HBV DNA at >2 × 105 IU/mL in both distilled water and spiked serum. Results can be interpreted within 31.48 ± 1.41 min in real-time turbidimeter. The amplification is exclusively specific to HBV, but not with the other six human-specific viruses. Moreover, the assay showed comparable performance within 95% confidence interval to the previously developed HBV LAMP toward clinical specimens.

Conclusions

This newly developed method was accurate, affordable, and flexible to further implementation to large-scale third-trimester pregnancy screening.

Open access
Evidence of growth hormone effect on plasma leptin in diet-induced obesity and diet-resistant rats

Abstract

Background

Plasma leptin is regulated by several factors, including growth hormone (GH), which influences the pathophysiology of obesity.

Objective

To demonstrate the short-term effect of GH on plasma leptin levels in 3 conditions in vivo with the different amount of body fat mass.

Methods

Adult male Wistar rats were fed with standard chow or hypercaloric diet (HC). The HC rats were demonstrated as HC-feeding obese (HC-O) and HC-feeding resistant (HC-R) rats. Then, they were treated with GH or saline for 3 days. Basal plasma leptin levels were measured at 24 and 32 h. For meal-induced condition, all rats were fed for 2 hand plasma leptin was measured. Further 16-h fasting period, plasma leptin, insulin, and insulin sensitivity indexes were determined.

Results

The short-term GH treatment decreased basal plasma leptin at 32 h after the first GH injection in HC-O rats. However, GH treatment had no effect on meal-induced plasma leptin in all rats. Furthermore, GH treatment attenuated fasting effect on plasma leptin in control and HC-R rats. The insulin resistance (IR) induced by the short-term GH treatment was demonstrated by higher fasting plasma insulin and the increased homeostasis model of IR in HC-R rats.

Conclusions

The study demonstrates the important role of greater fat mass in HC-O rats, which results in decreased basal plasma leptin after short-term GH treatment. For meal-induced condition, GH had no effect on plasma leptin in all rats. Interestingly, GH could attenuate fasting effect on plasma leptin in rats that have lower fat mass.

Open access
Lactobacillus plantarum B7 attenuates Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice: preclinical study in vitro and in vivo

Abstract

Background

Salmonella typhimurium is a cause of gastroenteritis including diarrhea. Lactobacillus plantarum is a probiotic widely used to prevent and treat diarrhea.

Objectives

To determine the protective effects of L. plantarum B7 on diarrhea in mice induced by S. typhimurium.

Methods

Inhibition of S. typhimurium growth by L. plantarum B7 was determined using an agar spot method. Mice were divided into 3 groups (n = 8 each): a control group, an S group administered 3 × 109 CFU/mL S. typhimurium, and an S + LP group administered 1 × 109 CFU/mL L. plantarum B7 and 3 × 109 CFU/mL S. typhimurium daily for 3 days. Counts of S. typhimurium and percentage of fecal moisture content (%FMC) were determined from stool samples. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CXCL1 were determined.

Results

L. plantarum B7 produced a clear zone on S. typhimurium. There were significantly less S. typhimurium in the feces from mice in the S+LP group than in the S group. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CXCL1 in mice from the S group were significantly higher than levels in the S+LP and control groups. Feces from mice in the S group were soft and loose, whereas in the S+LP group they were hard and rod shaped. The %FMC in the S+LP group was significantly less than in the S group.

Conclusions

L. plantarum B7 can inhibit growth of S. typhimurium, decrease levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and attenuate symptoms of diarrhea induced in mice by S. typhimurium.

Open access
Outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with obstructive jaundice with and without preoperative biliary drainage: a retrospective observational study

Abstract

Background

Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary neoplasms may reduce the untoward effects of biliary obstruction and subsequent postoperative complications. However, PBD is associated with bile contamination and increases infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).

Objectives

To determine whether PBD is associated with more complications after PD.

Methods

Patients with obstructive jaundice from periampullary lesions who underwent PD from 2000 to 2015 at our institution were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort was divided into a group with PBD and a group without. PBD was performed using one of the following methods: endoprosthesis, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, surgical biliary-enteric bypass, or T-tube choledochostomy. PDs were performed by the first author using uniform surgical techniques. Postoperative complications were recorded. Statistical analyses were conducted using an unpaired t, Fisher exact, or chi-squared tests as appropriate.

Results

There were 26 with PBD and 28 patients without. Patients in the 2 groups were similar in age, presenting serum bilirubin level, operative time, operative blood transfusion, and hospital stay. The group with PBD had longer duration of jaundice, more patients presenting with cholangitis, and more patients with carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. The overall complications were higher in patients in the group with PBD than in the group without.

Conclusions

PBD was associated with more complications overall after PD. However, PBD was necessary and lifesaving in certain clinical situations and improved the condition of patients before they underwent PD. Routine PBD in patients with obstructive jaundice without definite indications is not recommended.

Open access
Open access
Sodium glycerophosphate and prescribed calcium concentrations in pediatric parenteral nutrition: a retrospective observational study and economic evaluation

Abstract

Background

The risk of precipitation limits calcium and phosphate concentrations that can be administered parenterally to pediatric patients. As an alternative to dipotassium phosphate, sodium glycerophosphate (NaGlyP) is claimed to reduce the risk of precipitation in solutions for parenteral administration.

Objectives

To determine the calcium concentrations, NaGlyP, and dipotassium phosphate prescribed in pediatric parenteral nutrition orders and the cost–benefit of the organic phosphate.

Methods

We retrospectively collected cross-sectional data for parenteral nutrition orders from September 2014 to August 2015 for pediatric patients including neonates and children aged <18 years who were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Calcium concentration, calcium concentration adjustments, and costs of phosphate used per bag were analyzed.

Results

Of 2,192 parenteral nutrition orders, NaGlyP was used in 2,128 (97.1%) with calcium concentrations in the range of 0.84–139.91 mmol/L, which were significantly higher than calcium concentrations used with dipotassium phosphate (0.00–12.21 mmol/L, P < 0.001). There was no report of visible precipitation. Median costs of NaGlyP and dipotassium phosphate used per unit bag were not significantly different (35.88 and 41.25 Thai baht [THB] or 1.04 and 1.20 USD per bag, respectively, P>0.99; (1 USD equivalent to 34.241 THB U.S. Federal Reserve Bank G5.A annual average rate 2015).

Conclusions

Higher calcium concentrations could be achieved without increasing the direct cost per unit bag significantly as a result of using NaGlyP, an alternative to dipotassium phosphate as a source of phosphate for patients who require high amounts of calcium in parenteral nutrition.

Open access