Previous studies based on English, Russian and Chinese corpora show that the average word length in texts grows steadily across centuries. These findings are in accordance with our results: the average word length in Arabic texts also grows during the analysed time span (8th century to the first half of the 20th century). Our paper shows the detailed statistics of the word length distribution century by century. The dynamics of the average word length correlates with the dynamics of the average word distribution entropy, which encourages an explanation of the phenomenon based on the Shannonian theory of communication.
This article covers the verbs kopulieren (copulate) and kaufen (buy) with the meaning of, religious and legal marriage’ followed by the verb verändern (change) with the meaning of ,marry’, ,getting married’. The case examples show that certain meanings of a verb which have been retained in Transylvanian documentary sources and the Transylvanian-Saxon vernacular are indeed mentioned in High German, however, they are marked ,archaic’ (see the given meanings of the verbs kopulieren, originating from Latin and the given meanings of the verb verändern originating from Middle High German). On the other hand, when a certain meaning of a verb is not documented in High German any longer, Transylvanian document sources and the Transylvanian-Saxon vernacular can serve as documentation (see the verb kaufen which has retained the Middle High German meaning). The case examples are taken from the Transylvanian-Saxon Dictionary and the North-Transylvanian-Saxon Dictionary.
Yakiv Bystrov and Diana Sabadash
This paper presents an inquiry into the cognitive-pragmatic specifics of To Room Nineteen by Doris Lessing. Its major goal is to investigate the cognitive means that enable the fulfilment of the writer’s pragmatic aims in the process of literary communication. The research reveals the writer’s aims of raising the problem of women in a patriarchal society and of intensifying manipulative influence upon the reader, which were achieved via the implicit concept of NEUROSIS and the CONTAINER concept used to metaphorically interpret the described events. The investigation proved that the concept of NEUROSIS intensifies psychological manipulation of the reader, ensuring the reader’s engagement in message creation, preserving the reader’s trust regardless of the transference of inaccurate information, etc. It participates in the reader’s neural simulation through nomination of somatisms, retrieval of memories from previous painful experiences, the activation of the “mirroring” phenomenon, etc. Metaphoric modelling provides a psychological manipulation of the reader’s perception through shading and highlighting of the appropriate facets, creating proper associations and establishing specific images. It implements activation of the neural activity, creating imaginative simulation of the reader’s body in action and involving personal cognitive experiences.
An essential factor for the naming practice lies in the language(s) spoken by that certain family. In the nowadays very common multilingual families in Transylvania, the so called ‚mixed marriages’, the linguistic contact also becomes manifest in the field of onomatology. Out of the vast subject matter, four aspects will be approached: the decline of the tradition of naming a child after a parent; naming practices following ethnic reasons in order to denote a certain identity; naming preferences for international names in mixed families; the increasing diversification and inter-culturality of name-giving due to globalization and the impact of social media. Concrete examples – based on bap tis mal registers of the local Lutheran Church – illustrate the monitored trends.
The present study takes two tendencies into account that have shaped the cultural contact between the Romanian culture and the culture of the German minority in Romania. On the one hand, the re-writing of history respectively of the historical discourse according to cultural policy of the Romanian communist state is envisaged, on the other hand, the selection of articles on Romanian culture and literature published in the weekly Karpatenrundschau are analysed in order to trace tendencies cultural transfer.
The story “Ja nicht ja” was written specifically for the volume “Der siebenbürgische Voltaire. Walther Gottfried Seidner zum 80. Geburtstag” by the famous novelist Eginald Schlattner. It brings the communist regime and the Department of State Security into the focus of the reader. During a meeting in the early 1990s attended by evangelical Lutheran priests of Augustan Confession a young priest admitted that he was a collaborator of the State Security, and thus managed to take over the burden of being an informant on the shoulders of others. Father Walther Gottfried Seidner, who was also threatened, managed to avoid State Security at any price, and understanding the situation of the young priest takes his defense.
This paper focuses on Mrs Gaskell’s treatment of the erring girl in Lizzie Leigh (1850) and Ruth (1853) and the new elements that she introduces which brand the treatment as different. Contrary to her Victorian contemporaries, Mrs Gaskell stresses the role of religion, the use of biblical quotations on the treatment of the sinner, and the role of motherhood. The paper also shows how Mrs Gaskell makes the illegitimate child an incentive towards repentance and hope of reclamation. Through her motherly love and devotion to her child, a mother rises and grows in character and faith. Moreover, the paper demonstrates Mrs Gaskell’s condemnation of the falsity of the traditional taxonomy of “illegitimate” or “fallen”, and her assertion that social value lies in the inherent properties within the individual. It also highlights how she makes forgiveness for the sinner a duty which society has to fulfil, and maintains that if the charitable and the kind are forced “to lie” because of the existing social and moral attitudes, then it is imperative that they should be changed so that “lies” are unnecessary. It concludes by investigating the stormy reception and the controversy it created among readers.