The assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly important in fields of public health, medicine, sociology and psychology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of generic Kiddo-KINDL questionnaire for adolescents. The psychometric evaluation was performed using 96 questionnaires fulfilled by adolescents aged 12–16 years. Cronbach’s α coefficient for internal consistency and split-half reliability was estimated as well as ceiling, floor effect and correlations among the subscales and total score. The mean reliability for subscales was 0.65 and the Cronbach’s α coefficient for the total score was 0.85. The lowest α coefficient was for the School dimension (0.44) and the highest was achieved for the Self-esteem (0.80). The correlation between two parts of the questionnaire and split-half reliability was 0.66 and 0.80 respectively. The first psychometric evaluation of the Polish Kiddo-KINDL showed promising basic measurement properties, but it needs farther assessment, including convergent, construct and discriminant validity estimation.
This study offers the first report on variation sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (MT-CYTB) gene in populations from Bosnia (northeastern Bosnia). This study was designed on the analysis of the genetic diversity of two populations of different cultural-anthropological and genetic origin, Roma population and native/non-Roma population. The main aim of our study was to estimate the usefulness of the CYTB sequence in the analysis of genetic categorization of different populations and intergroup diversity, as well as to provide some additional information on haplogroup-associated polymorphisms within the CYTB region in defining haplogroup status. Estimation of the genetic diversity was done using intra and intergroup genetic indices. The population-specific polymorphisms have been found in both categories of the populations. The results of the analysis of genetic differentiation show significant pairwise Fst differences between the Romani and native populations. Also, registered significant genetic differentiation is illustrated on the level of genetic variation between subpopulations of the Roma and non-Roma origin. The important result in our study is the confirmation of the significance of the triad of polymorphisms T14783C-G15043A-G15301A, indicating the influence of Asian component of the maternal gene pool on the genetic structure of the studied population of the Roma. Our data show that the haplogroup polymorphisms exist in the CYTB region and can provide useful information on the haplogroups that were defined only by the control region of the mtDNA. The results of this study indicate the region of CYTB gene can be a benefit in providing some additional information in the analysis of genetic structure of human populations and can be additionally applied in population studies.
Anna Siniarska, Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Sławomir Kozieł and Napoleon Wolański
The purpose of this study was to find out the differences in body physique and its proportions between children from Creole, Maya and Mestizo ethnic groups living in Merida, Mexico. The study was conducted between 1996–1999 and comprised of 4636 children and youth aged 6–18 years from three ethnic groups: Maya, Mestizo, and Creole. There were 1362 boys and 1314 girls from Creole group and 803 boys and 857 girls from the pooled Maya/Mestizo group. Anthropometric measurements included body height, arm and leg length, shoulder and hip width. The following indexes were calculated: leg length-to-body height, upper-to-lower limb, shoulder-to-body height, hip-to-body height, and hip-to-shoulder. Two-way analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the main effect and the interaction effects of age and ethnicity on height, leg length and body proportions, separately for boys and girls. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistica software version 13.1. All p-values lower than 0.05 were considered significant. Results of this study revealed that average values of body height, leg length and upper-to-lower limb and shoulder width proportions were statistically significantly different between ethnic groups. Creole children were taller and longer-legged than their Maya/Mestizo peers, and the greatest difference was noted after puberty. Maya/Mestizo children had relatively longer arm as compared to Creoles. Results of two-way ANOVA revealed that age and ethnicity were combined (interaction effect) factors for variation in body height both in boys and girls, and upper-to-lower limb proportion in boys, shoulder-to-body height proportion in girls. Ethnicity was the main effect factor for leg length both in boys and girls, and for the body proportions: upper-to-lower limb in girls and shoulder-to-body height in boys. Age was the main effect factor for upper-to-lower limb proportion in girls, shoulder-to-body height in boys, hip-to-body height in boys and girls, and hip-to-shoulder, both in boys and girls. In conclusion it may be stated that variation in body physique and body proportions during the postnatal growth in different ethnic groups is under the influence of complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors to which the individual is exposed.
Obesity is generally classified into generalized obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and abdominal or central obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and WC ≥80 cm for women) based on World Health Organization recommendation for Asians. Hypertension is one of the most common obesity-related complications, and about 30% of hypertensive individuals can be classified as being obese. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different age groups (years) on the anthropometric and derived variables. It determined the correlation between anthropometric and derived variables and also estimated the frequency of central obesity and hypertension. Finally, it investigated the relationship between central obesity and blood pressure among rural Bengalee adults of Dirghagram village of Ghatal Block, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among 310 rural adults (154 males; 156 females) aged over 18 years. Our study was carried out during March, 2017. Height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), hip circumference (cm) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were measured using standard procedures. One way ANOVA analysis on most of the anthropometric and derived variables showed a statistically significant increase from younger to older age group in both sexes (p<0.001;p<0.01; p<0.05). In addition to that, more females had central obesity using waist circumference (55.8% vs. 19.5%), waist hip ratio (87.2% vs. 35.7%), waist height ratio (73.7% vs. 44.2%), and conicity index (87.2% vs. 57.8%) criteria, and hypertension (52.5% vs. 27.3%). The prevalence of central obesity was much higher in case of hypertensive individuals. Therefore, the present study showed a high prevalence of central obesity among the rural adults of Dirghagram village. Furthermore, central obesity contributed in increasing hypertension among the villagers.
Despite many years of observation, the issue of third molars is still open for discussion. Among human teeth, third molars vary the most in number and morphology, which results from genetic changes and environmental factors affecting the evolution of the human dentition. This research aims to study various aspects of third molars in the population of young Poles, such as the incidence, time of eruption and causes of extraction in men and women. The analyses consider the socio-economic status of the respondents, including the frequency of visits to the dentist. Eight hundred students, aged 19–25 (14.4% of men and 85.6% of women) of the universities located in Wroclaw, Poland, took part in an online questionnaire survey. The incidence of third molars was smaller in the women (32.4–34.9%) than in men (47.8–56.5%) (p<0.001). For both sexes, the most frequent causes of extraction were abnormal tooth position (29.6–54.5%) and orthodontic treatment (15.5–27.3%). Both incidence and causes of extraction were related for all the examined pairs of teeth (upper–lower teeth and right–left teeth). The men (17.94–18.49 year) and women (18.42–18.83 year) did not differ in the mean age of their third molars’ eruption. The men visited the dentist less often than the women did (p<0.001). The study presents original research and confronts it with published results. Despite the limitations of an online survey, the results can contribute to more advanced research conducted on a larger scale. In particular, more detailed research is recommended for the Polish population, for which such studies are scarce.
Ankita Bhattacharya, Shankarashis Mukherjee and Subrata Kumar Roy
Comprehensive nutritional assessment is the basis of nutritional diagnosis and necessary to identify the individual or the population at a risk of dietary deficiencies. However, there is no specific and confirmatory method to measure nutritional status. Present study tried to find out the efficacy of two nutritional assessment method (1) biochemical test like Total serum protein (TSP) and (2) anthropological measurements like body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC). Later, three methods were tested and compared for the strength of assessing the nutritional status. Study was conducted among 198 adult Oraon, 84 male, 114 female individuals of Madarihat and Falakata police station area, Alipurduar district, West Bengal. Selected blood parameters such as total serum protein (TSP), serum albumin and haemoglobin and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, calf circumference, biceps skinfold, triceps skinfold, and calf skinfold) were obtained following standard instruments and protocols. Nutritional status of all individuals was assessed by TSP, BMI and MUAC classification methods. Comparison between/among three classification methods (TSP, BMI and MUAC) was done and discriminant function analysis was adopted to find out the percentage of correct classification by each methods. It was found that prevalence of undernutrition using TSP classification was 38.1% male and 43.0% female; using BMI was 34.5% male and 53.5% female; using MUAC was 45.2% male and 64.9% female. Discriminant function analysis showed that BMI (97.0%) had the highest capability of correct classification followed by MUAC (84.80%) and TSP (63.60%). Results indicate that however, TSP is an objective way of nutritional assessment, but BMI had the highest capability of correct classification of nutritional status. It may be pointed out that the evaluation with TSP was expensive and invasive whereas BMI is non-expensive and completely a non-invasive way of evaluation. Therefore, BMI may widely be used for nutritional assessment.
Józef Tatarczuk, Artur Wandycz and Andrzej Malinowski
It is widely known from the literature that the rate of physical development and sexual maturation is not only determined by genetics but is also modified by physical workload factors. Given the above, this paper aimed at comparing menarcheal age of school-aged athletes engaged in different types of sport (and their respective workloads) after controlling for physical traits such as body height and mass and slenderness ratio. The survey was conducted in 2017 in 6 sports schools in Poland’s Lubuskie Voivodeship. Body height and mass were measured and the slenderness index (body height divided by the cubic root of body weight) was used to establish body build. The age of menarche was self-reported by the study participants. In total, 232 girls aged 9–18 were included in the research, of whom 125 reported their age of menarche. The age-adjusted arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for the study participants’ estimates. The raw data were then transformed into standardized z-score values. The significance of differences was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test as an alternative to the t-test when a given variable was not normally distributed. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate linear relations between the workload and age at menarche. It was found that dancers, acrobats and swimmers reported the youngest menarcheal ages. Girls practising most demanding sport disciplines (in terms of strength and endurance) reported the oldest age at menarche. Girls practising more than 3 times per week had menarche later than those practising 3 times a week or less, and the difference was statistically significant. In conclusion it might be stated that the type of sport discipline has a significant effect on age of menarche. Sport disciplines involving heavier physical exertion usually delay the onset of menstruation.
Several studies have indicated that the prevalence of unhealthy body weight in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high. It is unclear whether factors related to the weight status of children and adolescents with ASD are the same or different from factors associated with the weight status of typically developing children (TDC). The objective of this review was to identify key factors associated with the higher rates of unhealthy weight observed in individuals with ASD and create a structural model, which could be used for future autism intervention research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the genetic basis of obesity in ASD, special treatment (behavioral and medical, including diet and psychotropic medications), psychological (depression and anxiety) as well as somatic comorbid disorders such as feeding problems, sensory processing disorders, gastrointestinal problems and sleep disorders, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, loneliness and social isolation, and family functioning (maternal depression and stress).
Nitamoni Bharali, Kh. Narendra Singh and Nitish Mondal
Undernutrition is considered to be a serious public health problem in most of the developing countries. Globally, the anthropometric measures are widely used to estimate the magnitude of undernutrition in children. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) provides the overall magnitude of undernutrition as an aggregate single measure over the conventional anthropometric indices and helps in identification of single or double or multiple anthropometric failures in preschool children. The present investigation assesses the age-sex specific prevalence of undernutrition using both conventional anthropometric measures and CIAF among Sonowal Kachari tribal preschool children of Assam, India. This cross-sectional investigation was carried out among 362 (162 boys and 190 girls) Sonowal Kachari tribal children younger than 5 years of flood affected regions of Lakhimpur district of Assam, India. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were measured using standard procedures. Age-sex specific Z-score value of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were calculated by using WHO-Anthro, v. 3.2.2. A child Z-score <−2.00 of any anthropometric indices was considered to be undernourished and the standard CIAF classification was used to calculate the prevalence of undernutrition. The overall prevalence of wasting, underweight, stunting and CIAF was observed to be 11.6%, 22.9%, 36.2%, and 48.6%, respectively. The sex-specific prevalence of wasting (15.8% vs. 6.9%), underweight (30.5% vs. 14.5%) and stunting (42.1% vs. 29.6%) observed to be significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.05). The girls (61.05%) were found to be more affected than boys (34.9%) by CIAF (p<0.01). The present investigation reported higher magnitude of undernutrition using CIAF over conventional anthropometric measures, hence the CIAF is relatively better indicator that reflects higher magnitude of undernourishment as compared to any conventional anthropometric indices in children. This research investigation has also reinforced the importance of appropriate intervention programme and strategies needed to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition in childhood and in population as a whole.
Magdalena Kosińska, Tomasz Hadada and Grażyna Liczbińska
It was examined whether positive changes in maternal SES and medical facilities in Poland 20 years after social and economic transformation weakened the role of maternal age in shaping perinatal outcome. Data comprised of 2,979 children born in 2000 and 2,992 – born in 2015. To test the differences between the frequency of indicators of adverse perinatal outcome the chi-square test was applied. The influence of maternal age on the perinatal outcome was estimated using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), with binomial error distribution and the logit link function. The infants survival was examined using survival analysis. Gestational age and birth weight were influenced by mother’s age and the year of survey. Infants of adolescent and older mothers represented the groups with a risk of adverse perinatal outcome: an increase of preterm births and higher risk of having children with LBW in the group of adolescent mothers than in mothers aged >35, infants born SGA and LGA found in both adolescent and adult mothers. GLMs confirmed the impact of maternal age and the year of survey on perinatal outcome. The Cox proportional hazard models showed that the year of survey was the only factor affecting the risk of infants’ death. The impact of maternal age on adverse perinatal outcome can be counterbalanced by positive changes in social and economic standard of living of women, improvement in neonatal medical care and better equipment of hospital wards in 2015 as compared to 2000.