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Determination of steroid esters in hair of slaughter animals by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

Abstract

Introduction

The use of growth promoters in animal husbandry to increase weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion into muscle has been banned in the European Union since 1988, and under Directive 96/23/EC, surveillance for anabolic steroid hormones is obligatory. The hormones present in animal tissues may be of endogenous origin or may result from illegal administration. Steps have been taken to determine selected steroids in the form of esters in the alternative matrix of animal hair. Their detection in biological material is direct proof of the illegal use of anabolics.

Material and Methods

The procedure for the determination of steroid esters in animal hair, based on digestion, extraction, purification, and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was validated under the current regulations. In total, 348 samples of animal hair were examined using this method.

Results

Good recoveries and precision values (RSD) were obtained during validation. Decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) were in the ranges of 2.57–4.18 μg kg−1 and 4.38–7.12 μg kg−1, respectively. The method met the criteria for confirmation techniques with respect to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

Conclusion

Testing for steroid esters in animal hair was introduced into the National Residue Control Programme in 2017. Steroid esters were not found in any hair samples above the CCα, which indicates that illegal use of anabolics was not confirmed.

Open access
Effects of ketosis in dairy cows on blood biochemical parameters, milk yield and composition, and digestive capacity

Abstract

Introduction

This study aimed to characterise the effects of ketosis on milk yield and composition and digestive capacity in transition dairy cows.

Material and Methods

Seven ketotic and seven healthy cows were housed in individual stalls for six days. Samples of plasma, milk, refused total mixed ration, and faeces were collected, and the blood biochemical parameters, milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, and faecal dry matter (FDM) production were determined.

Results

Compared with healthy cows, the ketotic cows had significantly higher concentrations of milk fat and citrate, but lower levels of milk protein and lactose. The cows exhibited a need for acid detergent fibre in forage and better digestion of neutral detergent fibre, starch, crude protein, and phosphorus than healthy cows, but more fat and gross energy were excreted in their faeces. Ketotic cows had higher energy-corrected milk yields and lower FDM than healthy cows.

Conclusion

Lower feed intake coinciding with the requirement to maintain high milk production is considered to be the cause of ketosis in dairy cows. Ketotic cows exhibited lower dry matter fat digestion.

Open access
Marine tetrodotoxin as a risk for human health – a review

Abstract

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a toxin mainly occurring naturally in contaminated puffer fish, which are a culinary delicacy in Japan. It is also detected in various marine organisms like globefish, starfish, sunfish, stars, frogs, crabs, snails, Australian blue-ringed octopuses, and bivalve molluscs. TTX is produced by marine bacteria that are consumed mainly by fish of the Tetraodontidae family and other aquatic animals. TTX poisoning through consuming marine snails has recently begun to occur over a wider geographical extent through Taiwan, China, and Europe. This neurotoxin causes food intoxication and poses an acute risk to public health. The aim of this review is to present the most recent information about TTX and its analogues with particular regard to toxicity, methods of analysis, and risk to humans of exposure.

Open access
African swine fever virus – persistence in different environmental conditions and the possibility of its indirect transmission

Abstract

Since 2007, African swine fever (ASF) has posed a serious threat to the European swine industry. In Poland, the numbers of reported outbreaks in pigs and affected areas grow every year. In 2018, the disease was noted in Western Europe, in Belgium specifically, where several hundred infected wild boars have been detected so far. In 2018, the virus unexpectedly emerged in pig holdings in eastern China, northern Mongolia, Vietnam, and Cambodia, causing worldwide concern about its further spread. Since there is still no vaccine available, the only approach to control the disease is biosecurity. Identification of potential sources of the virus is extremely important in light of its phenomenal survivability. The review summarises the current knowledge about ASFV survivability and resistance to environmental conditions, and discusses the role of indirect contact in spreading the disease.

Open access
Amorphus globosus foetuses in Polish Holstein cattle: anatomical, histological, and genetic studies

Abstract

Introduction

A comprehensive description is presented of four novel cases ofamorphus globosus (ag) foetuses originating from multiple pregnancies of Polish Holstein cows.

Material and Methods

Four amorphic foetuses were delivered by three cows. Tissue samples were collected during autopsy, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue samples of abnormal foetuses and from blood leukocytes of their healthy siblings. PCR reactions were used to reveal the presence of Y-linked genes (SRY and AMELY) and an X-linked gene (AMELX).

Results

All foetuses were classified to the groupholoacardius amorphous (anideus). Molecular analysis clearly showed that at 17 microsatellite loci, the studied amorphous foetuses had identical genotypes to the viable co-twins.

Conclusion

Foetuses had monozygotic origin. Histological analysis showed a low level of development of tissues of meso- and ectodermal origin, as well as features of degrading patterns.

Open access
ARTs in wild felid conservation programmes in Poland and in the world

Abstract

With the exception of the domestic cat, all felid species (Felidae) are currently threatened with extinction in their natural habitat. To develop effective and optimal wild cat conservation programmes with assisted reproductive technology (ART) it is necessary to combine advances from different disciplines of science, starting from the biology of the species, through research into the population and habitat, assisted reproductive technologies, establishment of gene banks, developing bioinformatic systems, and ending with biodiversity and endangered species management. In the last few years knowledge of felid reproduction has expanded considerably thanks to comparative studies utilising the domestic cat as a research model for endangered wild cats. Basic reproductive techniques utilised in both domestic cat breeding and rescuing wild felid populations that are threatened with extinction include semen collection and cryopreservation, artificial insemination, oocyte collection, in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilisation, somatic cloning, and embryo transfer. The main directions in which assisted reproductive technologies are being developed in wild cat conservation implementations and the contribution of Polish research centres in advancing these methods are presented.

Open access
Bivagina pagrosomi Murray (1931) (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea), a microcotylid infecting the gills of the gilt-head sea bream Sparus aurata (Sparidae) from the Red Sea: morphology and phylogeny

Abstract

Introduction

Monogenea is a class of ectoparasitic flatworms on the skin, gills, or fins of fish. Microcotylidae is a family of polyopisthocotylean monogeneans parasitising only marine fishes. This work describes and taxonomically determines a microcotylid polyopisthocotylean monogenean in an important fish in Saudi aquaculture.

Material and Methods

Thirty gilt-head sea bream captured alive from the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia were examined for monogenean infection. Worms were described morphologically and morphometrically by light microscopy and multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees were also constructed after maximum likelihood analysis of the 28S rRNA sequences.

Results

Seventeen fish were infected by a monogenean parasite in the gill lamellae. It showed a bilobed anterior extremity, two rows of numerous unequal clamps of microcotylid type, and paired muscular vaginae crowned by differently sized spines. The vaginal number and its relative armature suggested the species’ affiliation to group D; the parasite possessed large, muscular vaginae with a full corona of spines over almost the entire width resembling Bivagina pagrosomi Murray (1931). The molecular analysis of the parasite 28s rRNA revealed 97% homology with B. pagrosomi (AJ577461.1).

Conclusion

The results confirmed the taxonomic status of the parasite recorded. On the basis of morphology and molecular data, we consider that several conclusions on the systematic status of microcotylids from Red Sea fishes in Saudi Arabia should be discussed.

Open access
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa originating from farm animals and people in Egypt

Abstract

Introduction

Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) has become the leading cause of health care-associated infections. Treatment is difficult due to the lack of an effective antimicrobial therapy, and mortality is high. This study investigated the occurrence of CRPA in farm animals (buffaloes and cattle), livestock drinking water, and humans in Egypt.

Material and Methods

A total of 180 samples were examined: 50 faecal each from buffaloes and cattle, 30 of livestock drinking water, and 50 stool from humans. The samples were cultured on cetrimide agar and the plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The isolates were examined for the presence of the blaKPC, blaOXA-48, and blaNDM carbapenemase-encoding genes using PCR and investigated for the exotoxin A (toxA) gene. The toxA gene from carbapenem- group resistant isolates was phylogenetically analysed.

Results

P. aeruginosa was isolated from buffaloes, cattle, drinking water, and humans, with occurrences of 40%, 34%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. Carbapenem resistance genes were found in 60%, 59%, 67%, and 70% in buffalo, cattle, water and human samples, respectively. The toxA gene was detected in 80% of samples. The phylogenetic analysis showed that cattle and water sequences were in one cluster and more related to each other than to human isolates.

Conclusion

Occurrence of CRPA among farm animals, drinking water, and humans was high, reflecting the environmental origin of P. aeruginosa and highlighting contaminated water as a potential transmitter of CRPA to livestock and next to humans.

Open access
Clinical chemistry investigations in recumbent and healthy German Holstein cows after the fifth day in milk

Abstract

Introduction

Recumbency is a frequent symptom occurring throughout lactation. Its cause can be related to the energy or mineral metabolism, or to trauma or infectious diseases. We compared various clinical chemistry parameters between healthy and recumbent cows and between cows with different causes of recumbency and determined if hypocalcaemia manifests in later lactation.

Material and Methods

Recumbent (n = 32) and healthy (n = 32) German Holstein cows were studied. After clinical examination, a serum sample was taken to measure the concentrations of Mg, Ca, Fe, Na, K, Pi, β-hydroxybutyrate, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea, and creatinine as well as activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and γ-glutamyl transferase in recumbent cows > 5 d in milk and control cows matched for age, lactation number, and pregnancy stage.

Results

In recumbent cows, mean serum concentrations of NEFA, bilirubin, and CK were statistically higher, while those of Fe, K, and Pi were significantly lower. Parameters compared between different recumbency diagnoses showed some descriptive Fe, K, urea, and AST differences, but these were not statistically significant.

Conclusion

The results show that only a limited number of parameters have diagnostic besides therapeutic value. Although of minor importance in our study, hypocalcaemia should be considered a cause of recumbency, even outside the typical risk period of parturient paresis.

Open access
Cytogenetic karyotype analysis in selected species of the Erinaceidae family

Abstract

Introduction

Comparative analysis of the karyotype structure was made in two hedgehog species: the northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) and the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

Material and Methods

The cytogenetic analysis used differential staining techniques (DAPI, Ag-NOR, and C-banding/DAPI) and sequential QFQ/FISH banding with NOR20 and TEL20 probes which showed 45S rDNA and (TTAGGG)n repeat sequences, respectively, on hedgehog chromosomes.

Results

It was confirmed that the somatic cells of the hedgehogs have a constant number of chromosomes (2n = 48,XY). Differences were observed in the NOR number between the species. NORs were identified on three autosome pairs in the northern white-breasted hedgehog and on only two pairs in the African pygmy hedgehog. Chromosome analysis by C-banding/DAPI showed large segments of heterochromatin rich in A-T pairs on three autosome pairs in both the northern white-breasted and African pygmy hedgehogs. The heterochromatin segments encompassed large fragments of the longer arm of chromosome pairs 13, 14 and 20. The (TTAGGG)n repeat sequences on the hedgehog chromosomes were only observed in the terminal position of all the chromosomes in both species.

Conclusion

Our observations provide new information on the level of diversity within the Erinaceidae family.

Open access