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N. Geva and G. Štrkolcová

Abstract

Spirocerca lupi is a nematode causing spirocercosis disease that affects mostly carnivores and especially canidae. The life cycle of S. lupi includes a coprophagous beetle as an obligatory intermediate host and a variety of facultative paratenic hosts. In Israel, spirocercosis is considered to be a serious condition with a variety of clinical signs comprising a great risk to canine populations. The diagnosis at an early infective stage is unreliable and the vast majority of infected dogs are diagnosed only when the disease has advanced. In advanced stages of the disease, treatment is difficult and there is a high risk for complications. A study was carried out to compare the prevalence of S. lupi in the central region of Israel with a previous investigation and by that consequently try to estimate the efficacy of preventative treatment used nowadays in Israel. The study was done by the use of two different methods: looking for the infective larvae (L3) in the main intermediate host in Israel, Ontophagus sellatus, and searching for the eggs of S. lupi by performing flotation methods on faecal samples. Beetles and faecal samples were collected from four different locations in the winter and summer of 2017, 2018, and 2019. According to the literature review and collection of data from case studies, the prevalence of spirocercosis is increasing in Israel, despite the negative results from the dissections of beetles and faecal samples.

Open access

Marta Szweda, Andrzej Rychlik, Izabella Babińska and Andrzej Pomianowski

Abstract

The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme catalyses the first stage of biosynthesis of prostanoids, proteins that are implicated in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes accompanied by inflammation, pain and fever. Overexpression of COX-2 was determined in tumour tissues, which suggests that this enzyme participates in oncogenesis. In this paper the topics discussed are mechanisms regulating COX-2 expression, COX isoforms, their role in the body and the oncogenic mechanisms triggered by the overexpression of COX-2, including inhibition of apoptosis, intensification of neoangiogenesis, increased metastatic capacity, and weakening of the immune system. The significance of and the mechanisms by which COX-2 participates in oncogenesis have been studied intensively in recent years. The results are highly promising, and they expand our understanding of the complex processes and changes at the molecular, cellular and tissue level that promote oncogenesis and cancer progression. Notwithstanding the knowledge already gleaned, many processes and mechanisms have not yet been elucidated in human medicine and, in particular, in veterinary medicine. Further research is required to develop effective tumour diagnostic methods and treatment procedures for humans and animals.

Open access

Małgorzata Sobczak-Filipiak, Józef Szarek, Iwona Badurek, Jessica Padmanabhan, Piotr Trębacz, Monika Januchta-Kurmin and Marek Galanty

Abstract

Introduction: The clinical symptoms of portosystemic shunts (PSSs) and hepatic microvascular dysplasia (HMD) – portal vein hypoplasia (PVH) in dogs are similar. PSSs are abnormal vascular connections between the portal vein system and systemic veins. HMD is a very rare developmental vascular anomaly, recognisable during histopathological examination. The study aim was to assess the prevalence of HMD–PVH and hepatocellular and vascular pathologies in the liver. Material and Methods: Liver biopsies from 140 dogs (of different breeds and both sexes) arousing clinical suspicion of PSS were examined histopathologically. Results: An initial PSS diagnosis was confirmed in 125 dogs (89.29%). HMD–PVH was found in 12.32% of dogs, as an isolated disease in 9.29%, especially in Yorkshire terriers, and with extrahepatic PSS in 6.67%. Histopathological analysis of muscles around sublobular veins showed that HMD cases presented hypertrophy or hypertrophy with fibrosis. In 2.17% of all dogs with liver vascular developmental disorders calcification was visible around vessels (without correlation by degenerative changes in those vessels), suggesting prior onset of deep metabolic disorders. Clinical suspicion of PSS was also formed upon quite different pathological processes in young dogs. Conclusion: Histopathological findings diagnosed the type of vascular anomalies (PSS or HMD–PVH) or other pathological changes conclusively, therefore detailed hepatic histopathology is an indispensable component of the clinical diagnostic process.

Open access

I. Strapáč, Z. Bedlovičová and M. Baranová

Abstract

This study focused on the determination of non-specific proteolytic activity of edible spruce Morchella esculenta in water extract, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH = 7.5) extract and a suspension prepared from 200 mg DW (dry weight) of edible spruce in PBS solution (pH 7.5). A clear casein solution was used as a substrate. The absorbances were measured in quartz cuvettes at the wavelength of 280 nm against a blank with zero concentration of trypsin. Non-specific proteolytic activity was expressed as trypsin equivalents per kilogram of mushroom dry weight (mg.kg−1 DW). All of the extracts demonstrated non-specific enzymatic activity. The highest activity was observed in the PBS suspension and the lowest enzymatic activity was measured in the water extract of the Morchella esculenta fungi. The non-specific proteolytic activity decreased in the following order: PBS suspension extract (pH 7.5; 22.9 mg.kg−1 DW), followed by PBS extract (pH 7.5; 13.6 mg.kg−1 DW) and finally the water extract (10.94 mg.kg−1 DW).

Open access

J. Halušková, B. Holečková, J. Staničová and V. Verebová

Abstract

The epigenetic mechanisms represent a dynamic, reversible and heritable manner modulating gene expression during the life cycle of an animal organism. They generate the specific epigenetic marks which constitute so-called epigenome. One of the most studied epigenetic mechanisms/marks is DNA methylation which is, similarly as the whole epigenome, susceptible to environmental and nutritional influences. The aberrations of the DNA methylation profile may alter gene expression leading to pathologic consequences. Pesticides along with their pest-reducing effects may also negatively affect non-target organisms. In our preliminary study, we investigated an effect of the pesticide Mospilan on the DNA methylation of the bovine GSTP1 gene which plays an important role in the cell detoxification processes. The specific primers for the GSTP1 Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis were proposed and tested with the DNA from the Mospilan-treated bovine lymphocytes. It seems that the pesticide with the concentration of 100 µg.ml−1 did not induce DNA methylation changes in GSTP1 gene in bovine lymphocytes.

Open access

Alicja Stachura, Barbara Bojarojć-Nosowicz, Dariusz Kaczmarczyk and Ewa Kaczmarczyk

Abstract

Introduction: Numerous mutations in the bovine tumour necrosis factor receptor type two (TNF-RII) gene have been identified, but their biological consequences remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphism in the analysed loci of the bovine TNF-RII gene is linked with the size of cell subpopulations naturally infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) which serve important immune functions in the host. Material and Methods: Samples originated from 78 cows. Polymorphisms in the studied gene were determined by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. BLV infection was diagnosed by the immunofluorescence (IMF) technique and nested PCR. Cell subpopulations were immunophenotyped with IMF. Results: Similar and non-significant differences in the average percentages of TNFα+, IgM+TNFα+, and CD11b+TNFα+ cells infected with BLV were noted in individuals with various genotypes in the polymorphic sites g.-1646T > G and g.16534T > C of the TNF-RII gene, and significant differences in the percentages of these subpopulations were observed between selected microsatellite genotypes (g.16512CA(n)). Conclusion: STR polymorphism and the number of CA dinucleotide repeats in intron 1 of the TNF-RII gene influence the frequency of TNF+, CD11b+TNF+, and IgM+TNF+ subpopulations naturally infected with BLV. Polymorphism in the gene’s other two sites do not affect the size of these cell subpopulations.

Open access

Mariana Panayotova-Pencheva, Katerina Todorova and Vassilena Dakova

Abstract

Introduction: Pathomorphological changes in the lungs, stomach, and small intestines of wild boars infected with Metastrongylus spp., Ascarops strongylina, and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were investigated. Material and Methods: Dissection of 11 wild boars was performed, and parasitised organs were histologically investigated by common techniques. Results: Macroscopic lesions in the lungs infected with Metastrongyus spp. were seen within the apical parts of the large lobes, irregular in form, pale greyish in colour, and compact in consistency. The main pathohistological findings were: the presence of parasite forms, and lymphocytes and neutrophils in the lumen of bronchi and bronchioles, desquamation of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium, emphysema, thickening of alveolar septa, hyperaemia, alveolitis, infiltration of the interstitial tissue with giant cell, monocytes and eosinophils, and peribronchial and disseminated lymphoid hyperplasia. The principal observations accompanying infection with A. strongylina were inflammation and focal mucosal damage in the stomach, the latter clearly demarcated from the surrounding tissues. Severe injuries in the place of attachment of M. hirudinaceus to the wall of the small intestine were seen. Intestinal villi, underlying mucosa, and submucosa were destroyed, and an intense inflammatory reaction was present. Conclusion: The histopathological lesions showed wide diversity, varying from mild to severe; but none of them were lethal.

Open access

D. Mudroňová, S. Gancarčíková and R. Nemcová

Abstract

The effects of zinc sulphate on selected properties of L. plantarum CCM 7102 were tested in vitro. The resistance of lactobacilli to higher concentrations of ZnSO4 (up to 5000 mg Zn2+.l−1) in growth media was strain-dependent. Further studies were carried out on the most resistant strain of L. plantarum CCM 7102. While the addition of low concentrations of zinc sulphate into the growth media (< 100 mg Zn2+.l−1) did not influence the properties of L. plantarum CCM 7102, the concentrations of 100—500 mg Zn2+.l−1 stimulated: the growth rate, production of lactic acid, adhesion to porcine enterocytes and the inhibition of pathogens E. coli O8:K88+ent+, S. enterica and S. Typhimurium. Conversely, however, high concentrations > 500 mg Zn2+.l−1 inhibited these properties. The addition of zinc (250 mg Zn2+.l−1) did not affect the resistance to antimicrobials, low pH, and the resistance to bile salt was affected only weakly. Zinc-resistant probiotic Lactobacillus strains are suitable for use in feedstuffs with a higher content of zinc designed for the prevention of post weaning diarrhoea in pigs.

Open access

Anna Domosławska, Sławomir Zduńczyk and Tomasz Janowski

Abstract

Introduction: Significant improvement of sperm motility within one month effected by oral supplementation of selenium and vitamin E was described in four infertile male dogs which failed to conceive in their last three matings with different bitches. Material and Methods: The dogs (a Golden Retriever, an English Cocker Spaniel, and two Tibetan Mastiffs) were supplemented daily with selenium (Se) (0.6 mg/kg organic Se yeast) and vitamin E (vit. E) (5 mg/kg) per os for 60 days. Semen was collected on days 0, 30, 60, and 90. The sperm concentration and motility parameters were evaluated by the CASA system, sperm morphology was explored by Diff-Quick staining, and live and dead spermatozoa were differentiated by eosin/nigrosin staining. The concentrations of Se and vit. E were measured in peripheral blood serum on semen collection days. Results: Before administration, the concentrations of Se in blood plasma were low (86.0–165.0 µg/L). After 30 days of treatment there was an observable improvement in total and progressive sperm motility and kinematic parameters (VAP, VSK, VCL, ALH, BCF, and RAPID). The percentages of live and normal morphology sperm cells were also higher. There was also an observable increase in Se and vitamin E concentrations in blood serum. Bitches were successfully mated and delivered four to six puppies. Conclusion: Supplementation with Se and vit. E improved rapid sperm motility and restored fertility in infertile dogs with low Se status.

Open access

Mehmet Ozkan Timurkan, Hakan Aydin and Ahmet Sait

Abstract

Introduction: Bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPIV3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are the cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. With other pathogens, they cause bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in ruminants. The aim of the study was the detection and molecular characterisation of BPIV3 and BRSV from nasal swabs and lung samples of cows in and around the Erzurum region of eastern Turkey. Material and Methods: In total, 155 samples were collected. Of animals used in the study 92 were males and 63 females. The age of the animals was between 9 months and 5 years, mean 1.4 years. Most males were in the fattening period and being raised in open sheds; females were in the lactating period and kept in free stall barns. All samples were tested for the presence of viral genes using RT-PCR. Gene-specific primers in a molecular method (RT-PCR) identified BRSV (fusion gene) and BPIV3 (matrix gene) strains at the genus level. Results: RNA from BRSV and BPIV3 was detected in two (1.29%) and three (1.93%) samples, respectively, one of each of which was sequenced and the sequences were aligned with reference virus strains. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the strains in genotype C/BPIV3 and subgroup III/BRSV. Conclusion: The results indicate that BRSV and BPIV3 contribute to bovine respiratory disease cases in Turkey. This is the first report on their detection and molecular characterisation in ruminants in Turkey.