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I.C. Okeyode, O.T. Olurin, S.A. Ganiyu and J.A. Olowofela

Abstract

The study of the nature of distribution of natural radioelements in Ilesha and its environs with its geological structure has been studied using aeroradiometric data. Aeromagnetic data have also been subjected to three automated gradient techniques to delineate the subsurface structure of the study area. From the study, it can be found that maximum values of “eU” (ppm) and “eTh” (ppm) fall within the branded gneiss, whereas the maximum value of K (%) falls within porphyritic granite regions. eTh had the highest radioactive content. The environmental dose rate of Ilesha was between 0.1817 and 3.9296 msv/yr. Although there were extreme values, but the mean dose rate was 0.522 ± 0.310 msv/yr (within acceptable safe limit of 1.0 msv/yr). eU/K, eU/eTh and eTh/K ratios were analysed for enrichment or depletion of radioisotopes. eU/eTh >1 showed uranium depletion, while eTh >2 showed eTh enrichment. The magnetic intensity values ranged from -79.41 to 140.93 nT. The horizontal gradient method (HGM) and analytic signal amplitude (ASA) revealed that depth to magnetic sources ranged from 0.478 to 4.112 km and 0.348 to 2.551 km, respectively, whereas local wavenumber (LWN) depth ranged from 0.478 to 5.48 km, which overestimated those compared using HGM and ASA functions. The apparent susceptibility ranged from -0.00325 to 0.00323 SI, showing that ferromagnetic and diamagnetic mineral ranges control apparent susceptibility in Ilesha.

Open access

Matej Babič, Miłosz Andrzej Huber, Elzbieta Bielecka, Metin Soycan, Wojciech Przegon, Ljubomir Gigović, Siniša Drobnjak, Dragoljub Sekulović, Ivan Pogarčić, George Miliaresis, Matjaž Mikoš and Marko Komac

Abstract

Many problems in the analysis of natural terrain surface shapes and the construction of terrain maps to model them remain unsolved. Almost the whole process of thematic interpretation of aerospace information consists of a step-by-step grouping and further data conversion for the purpose of creating a completely definite, problematically oriented picture of the earth’s surface. In this article, we present application of a new method of drawing 3D visibility networks for pattern recognition and its application on terrain surfaces. For the determination of complexity of 3D surface terrain, we use fractal geometry method. We use algorithm for constructing the visibility network to analyse the topological property of networks used in complex terrain surfaces. Terrain models give a fast overview of a landscape and are often fascinating and overwhelmingly beautiful works by artists who invest all their interest and an immense amount of work and know-how, combined with a developed sense of the portrayed landscape, in creating them. At the end, we present modelling of terrain surfaces with topological properties of the visibility network in 3D space.

Open access

Aleksandar Golijanin and Vladimir Malbašić

Abstract

The Durmitor flysch complex represents a specific formation both in lithological and engineering geological sense. In the engineering geological sense this lithological formation is characterized by anisotropic and heterogeneous geotechnical properties, which depend on the dominant members within each individual package, as well as their spatial position.The Durmitor flysch complex consists of five superposition bed packages, which are mutually substantially different in their lithological, hydrogeological and geotechnical properties. For the first time in geological literature, this paper distinguishes five types of terrain construction within the Durmitor flysch complex. Contemporary geodynamic processes and their character within the flysch formation are defined. Particular emphasis is put on landslides, which represent a contemporary geodynamic phenomenon with certain specificities.

Open access

Yarra Sutadiwiria, Ahmad Helman Hamdani, Yoga Andriana Sendjaja, Iyan Haryanto, Yeftamikha Siahaan and Mordekhai Siahaan

Abstract

Borehole K-1 is an exploratory well that was drilled in the North Makassar Basin (West Sulawesi) in 2011. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass chromatography (GC-MS) analyses have been conducted on extracts from well cuttings from the Paleogene to Neogene interval in order to investigate the characteristics of biomarkers present. Although the well was drilled with oil-based mud and gas chromatographic analysis reveals that the alkane fractions are heavily contaminated, detailed investigation of biomarkers in these rock extracts and comparison with biomarkers in the oil-based mud has revealed that, while there are hopane and sterane biomarkers in the mud, there are also a discrete set of biomarkers that are indigenous to the rocks. These include oleanane, bicadinanes, taraxastane and other higher-plant-derived triterpanes. The presence of these compounds in environments that range from bathyal to marginal marine and even to lacustrine, shows the extent of reworking of terrestrial material into aquatic settings in this region during the Paleogene and Neogene and provides further evidence of a predominance of terrestrial material, even in deep-marine settings, with little ‘in-situ’ material noted. These findings have important implications for the use of biomarkers as indicators of palaeoenvironment in both source rocks and oils.

Open access

Dmitry A. Ruban and Emad S. Sallam

Abstract

Available reconstructions of Jurassic global sea level changes differ and are in need of an update. New stratigraphical charts and palaeogeographical developments for a number of large continental blocks or their portions of these (e.g., Germany, India, northeast Africa, northwest Australia, the Russian Platform and western Siberia) reveal regional long-term shoreline shifts (i.e., transgressions and regressions) during the Bajocian Stage (168.3–170.3 Ma). A comparison of these allows to document only a single coherent feature, namely the earliest Bajocian transgression, in the majority of the continental blocks considered. Undoubtedly, this event was triggered by a eustatic rise. However, long-term shoreline shifts were either weak to absent or differed between the blocks during almost the entire Bajocian, thus providing evidence of the apparent stability of global sea level and the importance of regional tectonic activity as a control mechanism on particular transgressions and regressions. Interestingly, it appears that the earliest Bajocian eustatic rise was a constituent of a long-term eustatic pattern; the nature of this event has yet to be fully understood. Generally, the findings presented here are in better agreement with Anthony Hallam’s view of Jurassic eustasy and question some other global sea level reconstructions.

Open access

Piotr Maciaszek, Lilianna Chomiak, Robert Wachocki and Marek Widera

Abstract

Sedimentary structures discussed in the present study are genetically linked to ripples that consist of pure sand or alternating sand and mud layers. All types of ripple-related structures, such as climbing-ripple cross-lamination and heterolithic bedding, i.e., flaser, wavy and lenticular (nodular), have been identified for the first time in fluvial strata that have been characterised previously as commonly massive. These small-scale bedforms, produced by migrating ripples, have been documented in a fluvial channel of late Neogene age in central Poland. The abundance and co-occurrence of the structures discussed and their spatial distribution provide evidence of their formation under very low-energy conditions, when flow velocity changed markedly, but was often significantly less than 0.5 m/s. Therefore, these ripple-derived sedimentary structures are here recognised as typical of channel fills of an anastomosing river.

Open access

Hua Li, A.J. [lpar]Tom[rpar] van Loon and Youbin He

Abstract

The silty top parts of graded turbidites of the Late Ordovician Pingliang Formation, which accumulated along the southern margin of the Ordos Basin (central China), have been reworked by contour currents. The reworking of the turbidites can be proven on the basis of paleocurrent directions in individual layers: the ripple-cross-bedded sandy divisions of some turbidites show transport directions consistently into the downslope direction (consistent with the direction of other gravity flows), but in the upper, silty fine-grained division they show another direction, viz. alongslope (consistent with the direction that a contour current must have taken at the same time). Both directions are roughly perpendicular to each other. Moreover, the sediment of the reworked turbidites is better sorted and has better rounded grains than the non-reworked turbidites.

Although such type of reworking is well known from modern deep-sea environments, this has rarely been found before in ancient deep-sea deposits. The reworking could take place because the upper divisions of the turbidites involved are silty and consequently relatively easily erodible, while the contour current had locally a relatively high velocity – and consequently a relatively large erosional capability – because of confinement within a relatively narrow trough.

Open access

Asma A. Ghaznavi, M.A. Quasim, A.H.M. Ahmad and Sumit K. Ghosh

Abstract

Grain size analysis is an important sedimentological tool used to unravel hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. For the present study, detailed grain size analysis was carried out in order to decipher the palaeodepositional environment of Middle–Upper Jurassic rocks of the Ler Dome (Kachchh, western India), which is further reinforced by facies analysis. Microtextures were identified as grooves, straight steps and V-shaped pits, curved steps and solution pits suggesting the predominance of chemical solution activity. Grain size statistical parameters (Graphic and Moment parameters) were used to document depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms and conditions of hydrodynamic energy, as well as to discriminate between various depositional environments. The grain size parameters show that most of the sandstones are medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted, strongly fine skewed to fine skewed and mesokurtic to platykurtic in nature. The abundance of medium- to coarse-grained sandstones indicates fluctuating energy levels of the deposition medium and sediment type of the source area. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for some samples that show a scattered trend, which is either due to a mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is predominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow-marine conditions. The C-M plots indicate that the sediments formed mainly by rolling to bottom suspension and rolling condition in a beach subenvironment. Log probability curves show that the mixing between the suspension and saltation populations is related to variable energy conditions.