The IGRF filtered Aeromagnetic data over Iwo, southwestern part of Nigeria within the basement complex was subjected to reduction to magnetic equator filtering, residual filtering, upward and downward continuation filtering, automatic gain control filtering, tilt angle derivative, second vertical derivative, analytical signal and Euler deconvolution. This reveals the geologic information such as structural trend. Based on the result of the total magnetic intensity map, reduction to equator map, analytical signal map and residual magnetic intensity map, it can be concluded that; The rocks in the study area have a trend of approximately northeast-southwest direction as seen on the upward continuation map. Most of the delineated lineaments found within the study area strike mostly in NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE with minor trend of E-W and ENE-WSW direction. Structural lineament orientation suggested that they were products of Pan-African orogeny (NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW trends) and pre-Pan-African orogeny (NNW-SSE and E-W trend). The interpretation of the aeromagnetic dataset gave an insight into the regional geology and structural trends of the area.
Inam ur Rahim, Shahid Ghazi, Shahid Ali, Qamar Uz Zaman Dar and Noman Zeb
The early Cambrian Abbottabad Formation mainly comprises of dolomite, sandstone, shale and conglomerates at Khote-di-Qabar section, Hazara region, Pakistan. The formation makes lower contact with Hazara Formation and upper contact with Hazira Formation. The formation is comprehensively studied during the field and lab work to interpret its provenance. Five distinguishable sedimentary units including 1) Tanaki boulder bed; 2) Sanghargali siltstone/shale; 3) Mohammdagali Dolomite/quartzite; 4) Mirpur sandstone; 5) Sirban dolomite can be identified in the field that indicate variable depositional strata of the formation under various depositional setting. Additionally, petrographic analysis of Sanghargali siltstone/shale unit and Mirpur sandstone unit of the formation indicate the main lithologies of these units are litharenite and sublitharenite respectively. Moreover, the provenance of these sandstone units of the formation most probably belong to Aravali and Malani Ranges located in the South of the study area.
The underground city beneath the Nevşehir Castle located in the middle of Cappadocia region in Turkey with approximately cone shape is investigated by jointly utilizing the modern geophysical techniques of seismic surface waves and electrical resistivity. The systematic void structure under the Nevşehir Castle of Cappadocia, which is known to have widespread underground cities, is studied by the use of 33 separate two-dimensional profiles ~4-km long where electrical resistivities and seismic surface waves are concurrently measured. Seismic surface wave measurements are inverted to establish the shear-wave velocity distribution while resistivity measurements are inverted to resolve the resistivity distribution. Several high-resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m point to a systematic void structure beneath the Nevşehir Castle. We were able to effectively isolate the void structure from the embedding structure since the currently employed resistivity instrument has provided us high resolution quality measurements. Associated with the high resistivity anomalies there exist low-velocity depth zones acquired from the surface wave inversions also pointing to a systematic void structure where three-dimensional visualization techniques are used to show the extension of the void structure under the studied area.
Mohamed G. El-Behiry, Adly H. D. El-Nikhely and Bassem M. El Sayed
West Wadi El-Rayan is located in the Western Desert at about 140 km SE of Cairo. Also, it lies between Gindi basin to the east and Abu Gharadig basin to the west. In order to construct a 3D structural model and to delineate the subsurface structure styles of the area, seismic structural interpretation and structural restoration are used. The structural geometry within the area is inverted half-graben, since the area was controlled by reactivation of older faults. The magnitude of the inversion-related shortening in the study area was estimated and was suggested to be strong. The result of the strong inversion magnitude occurred toward northeast of the study area can be concluded that, the area suffered shortening and part of the Jurassic / Early Cretaceous normal faults are reactivated as reverse faults. Also the cap, the main reservoirs and the source rock sections are brought to the surface and thus breached, as well any previous mature source rock becoming non-generative where the dry wells are located. However, any less severe inversion structure in this case where producing wells are located that remain buried and will have a better chance or preserving the structure geometry and therefore top and lateral seal.
Vladimir Arkadiev, Marina Lescano, Andrea Concheyro, Andrey Guzhikov and Evgeny Baraboshkin
This article is concerned with nannofossil study of Tithonian–Berriasian sediments of Eastern Crimea. The NJT 16, NJT 17a, NJT 17b, NKT, and NK 1 nannofossil zones were determined. The occurrence of Nannoconus kamptneri minor, one of the potential marker-types of the Tithonian–Berriasian boundary (the base of the NKT Zone) of the Tethyan sequence in the Feodosiyan section is assigned here to the Pseudosubplanites grandis ammonite Subzone and the magnetic Chron M18n. The base of the NKT Zone is closer to the Grandis Subzone base than to the base of the Jacobi Subzone. Contradictions in the interpretation of magnetic chrons obtained by the present authors (Arkadiev et al. 2018) and by Bakhmutov et al. (2018) might be caused by mistakes admitted in the latter work on the compiled section.
George Ajdanlijsky, André Strasser and Annette E. Götz
A cyclostratigraphic interpretation of peritidal to shallow-marine ramp deposits of the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) Opletnya Member exposed in outcrops along the Iskar River gorge, NW Bulgaria, is presented. Based on facies trends and bounding surfaces, depositional sequences of several orders can be identified. New biostratigraphic data provide a time frame of the studied succession with placement of the boundaries of the Anisian substages and show that the Aegean (early Anisian) substage lasted about 1.6 Myr. In the corresponding interval in the two studied sections, 80 elementary sequences are counted. Five elementary sequences compose a small-scale sequence. The prominent cyclic pattern of the Opletnya Member can thus be interpreted in terms of Milankovitch cyclicity: elementary sequences represent the precession (20-kyr) cycle and small-scale sequences the short eccentricity (100-kyr) cycle in the Milankovitch frequency band. Medium-scale sequences are defined based on lithology but only in two cases can be attributed to the long eccentricity cycle of 405 kyr. The transgressive-regressive facies trends within the sequences of all scales imply that they were controlled by sea-level changes, and that these were in tune with the climate changes induced by the orbital cycles. However, the complexity of facies and sedimentary structures seen in the Opletnya Member also implies that additional factors such as lateral migration of sediment bodies across the ramp were active. In addition, three major sequence boundaries have been identified in the studied sections, which can be correlated with the boundaries Ol4, An1, and An2 of the Tethyan realm.
The 14-m-thick sandy succession at Ujście in western Poland formed during the Odranian stadial of the Saalian glaciation, is exceptional in being very well sorted, almost mono-fractional (fine-grained sands) and mono-mineral (mainly quartz grains) and in lacking Scandinavian erratics. The lower sequence (5 metres in thickness) consists of three stacked packages of clinoforms (inclined cross-stratified sands) and is interpreted as having been deposited on a subaqueous fan in a shallow lake during two phases of rising water levels. The upper sand (9 metres in thickness) with (sub) horizontal stratification was redeposited on a subaerial alluvial fan. Distinctive distributary channels that occur in the uppermost part of the subaqueous fan and in the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan may indicate a change in sedimentation style from subaqueous to subaerial. Moreover, the subaerial position of the fan supports the presence of ice-wedge casts that developed under periglacial conditions in the upper part of alluvial fan. The results of granulo-metric analysis, rounding and frosting of grains and mineral analysis indicate that the sands are derived from Gorzów Formation of Early Miocene age. The only feasible explanation is that the 14-m-thick unit must have been redeposited during the Saalian glaciation.