The bulk of the scholarly literature on city-regions and their governance is drawn from contexts where economic and political systems have been stable over an extended period. However, many parts of the world, including all countries in the BRICS, have experienced far-reaching national transformations in the recent past in economic and/or political systems. The national transitions are complex, with a mix of continuity and rupture, while their translation into the scale of the city-region is often indirect. But, these transitions have been significant for the city-region, providing a period of opportunity and institutional fluidity. Studies of the BRICS show that outcomes of transitions are varied but that there are junctures of productive comparison including the ways in which the nature of the transitions create new path dependencies, and way in which interests across territorial scales soon consolidate, producing new rigidities in city-region governance.
Esraa Jamal, David Scott, Ahmed Idris and Gordon Lovegrove
This paper reports on the social, cultural, and demographic factors affecting Kuwaiti commuters. The objectives were to 1) investigate the awareness of Kuwaitis of transportation problems, 2) examine the perceptions of Kuwaitis of daily traffic congestion and how it affects them emotionally and physically, and the main objective 3) study the attitudes of Kuwaitis towards using public buses. An online survey was used to examine these factors, and a sample of five hundred transportation system users was obtained. The primary findings showed significant associations between the use of public transport buses and the user’s nationality, gender, age, education, and income level. Men are 2.6 times more likely to use buses, and non-Kuwaiti residents are 6.4 times more likely to use them. In relation to the perceptions of daily traffic congestion, findings indicate that with increase in travel time, commuters, in general, developed more negative feelings, such as exhaustion and stress. A large proportion of the sample population is aware of current local transportation problems and future transportation projects. The results of this study fill a gap in the knowledge of the socioeconomic and cultural factors that influence the success of sustainable public transportation solutions to the traffic challenges found in Kuwait. This knowledge is also crucial to foreign consultants working on planning and transportation projects in the region. It is recommended that officials use this new knowledge on cultural factors to develop integrated land use and transportation plans of the urban areas in Kuwait and to develop more effective and sustainable transportation demand management policies in support of UN Sustainable Development Goals that Kuwait has signed up to pursue.
We present a method of approximation of a deformation field based on the local affine transformations constructed based on n nearest neighbors with respect to points of adopted grid. The local affine transformations are weighted by means of inverse distance squared between each grid point and observed points (nearest neighbors). This work uses a deformation gradient, although it is possible to use a displacement gradient instead – the two approaches are equivalent. To decompose the deformation gradient into components related to rigid motions (rotations, translations are excluded from the deformation gradient through differentiation process) and deformations, we used a polar decomposition and decomposition into a sum of symmetric and an anti-symmetric matrices (tensors). We discuss the results from both decompositions. Calibration of a local affine transformations model (i.e., number of nearest neighbors) is performed on observed points and is carried out in a cross-validation procedure. Verification of the method was conducted on simulated data-grids subjected to known (functionally generated) deformations, hence, known in every point of a study area.
The complexity of the reality studied by geographical research requires applying such methods which allow describing the state of affairs and ongoing changes in the best possible way. This study aims to present a model of research on selected aspects of the dynamics and structure of socio-economic development. The idea was to determine whether we deal with the process of reducing or widening the differences in terms of individual features. The article primarily pursues a methodological goal, and to a lesser extent an empirical one. The methodological objective of the paper was to propose and verify a multi-aspect approach to the study of development processes. The analyses carried out reveal that in terms of the features taken into account in the set of 24 of the largest Polish cities the dominating processes are those increasing differences between cities, which are unfavourable in the context of the adopted development policies aiming at reducing the existing disparities. In relation to the methodological objective, the results of the conducted research confirm the rationale of the application of the measures of dynamics and the feature variance to determine the character (dynamics and structure) of the socio-economic development process of cities. Comparatively less effective, especially for interpretation, is the application of principal component analysis and a multivariate classification, which is mainly the result of differences in the variance of particular features.
Colourful zigzags, arcade game motifs, geometric figures, pseudo-frames of windows and even infantile drawings of flora and fauna – those are just some of the visible symptoms of the aesthetical and urbanistic chaotic condition also known as Polish pasteloza. One of the most common readings is that the excuse of thermal insulation is being (ab)used in order to radically erase the urbanistic, cultural and political heritage of Polish People’s Republic (PPR) from the city landscape. On the other hand, inhabitants of ‘pastelized’ housing estates claim to be satisfied not only with the insulation but also with their role in decision-making processes. A sense of alienation from one’s home seems to have gone away, together with the centralized state administration, and it is being replaced by citizen participation. The possibility of vindication of pasteloza’s ‘crimes against aesthetics’ will be deliberated in this paper – in order to pave a path for more complex understanding of this phenomenon that could offer a solution for achieving a compromise between aesthetics and civic participation in post-transition processes.
The article discusses a project that features the relocation of the historic Atelier building, built by Krakow-based architect Wandalin Beringer (1839–1923) who was active in the early twentieth century, and the regeneration of a plot belonging to the Congregation of the Resurrection since 1885, which is located at 12 Łobzowska Street in Krakow. The method includes cutting the entire structure off at the foundation and then after reinforcing it with a steel structure transporting it in its entirety to the new location. The project included two possible variants of moving the building in a straight line, either by 21 or 59 metres and evaluates two projects of further regeneration, the adaptive reuse of the building as an exhibition and religious space as well as a proposal for the remodelling of the nearby plot that belongs to the Congregation into a space for meditation and as a recreational park. The aim of these measures is to prevent the demolition of this building, now over a century old, as a result of which a forgotten element of the cultural heritage of the city will be saved. This project was based on the results of analyses of the cultural and historical conditions of Krakow. The block of buildings in which the Atelier in question is located is a very attractive location, near to the very centre of Krakow, adjacent to residential, service and educational buildings. It is directly adjacent to the Monastery Complex of the Congregation of the Resurrection, listed as a heritage building under conservation protection (municipal registry of heritage buildings). In the second half of the twentieth century, the building was used as a workroom by artists such as Xawery Dunikowski and later by the sculptress Teodora Stasiak. The case of the Atelier may provide an inspiration for discussion as well as raising awareness among citizens and city authorities to avoid future situations in which cultural heritage may become forgotten or demolished.
As a starting point, this paper recognizes the key role of the notion of ‘revitalization’ in the development of the multi-sectoral approach to urban renewal in Poland over the last 15 years. Thus, while acknowledging the important limitations of revitalization programs to date, it aims not so much to reject or criticize the current model revitalization, but rather to ‘revitalize’ the notion of revitalization itself. Based both on interviews with engaged practitioners of revitalization in Poland and on a review of practices existing elsewhere, this paper seeks to infuse the Polish imaginary of revitalization with transformative policy agendas.
While the principle of public participation is an acknowledged requirement of planning in most Western countries there is continuing debate, and insufficient empirical evidence, on the effectiveness of public participation in practice. This research examines the power of public participation in local planning in Scotland. The paper first identifies the principal actors in the development planning process. The institutional framework for planning in Scotland is then explained to establish the legislative and procedural context for a case study analysis of conflict between developers and the local community in a village in the metropolitan green belt. Thirdly, using a combination of analysis of planning documents, interviews with local planners and developers, and a survey of village residents the empirical study provides detailed insight on the principles, practice, and problems for public participation in local planning. This is followed by a critique of recent government initiatives to enhance public engagement in planning. Finally, a number of conclusions are presented on the prospects for more effective public participation in planning. While the empirical focus of the research is on Scotland, the findings are of general relevance for the debate over the rhetoric and reality of public participation in Western society.
Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
In this research, the spatial video technology is applied to the collection of soccer-related graffiti locations in the city of Krakow, Poland. Krakow is predestined for this research due to the long and often violent rivalry between fan groups of the two major soccer teams, MKS Cracovia and Wisla Krakow. This form of rivalry is often expressed by the application of graffiti by fans from both clubs, which can be observed in large parts of the city. Graffiti locations were digitized from spatial videos, stored in a Geographic Information System (GIS), and subsequently analyzed to explore (1) the overall spatial pattern, (2) the existence of spatial hotspots, and (3) changes to a previously conducted survey of graffiti locations in 2016. As expected, results indicate that graffiti locations are statistically significantly clustered, with pro-Wisla graffiti mainly concentrating in the north, pro-Cracovia graffiti dominating the south, and pro-Hutnik graffiti mostly found in the east of Krakow. The overall spatial pattern of graffiti locations remained relatively unchanged between the 2016 and 2018 surveys. Besides scientific inquiry, this research provides city officials with important information regarding graffiti locations in Krakow for a broader and more in-depth understanding of their spatial patterns.
Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
Walking as a transport mode is still often underrepresented in the overall transport system. Consequently, pedestrian mobility is usually not recorded statistically in the same manner as it is performed for motorised traffic which leads to an underestimation of its importance and positive effects on people and cities. However, the integration of walkability assessments is potentially a valuable complement in urban planning processes through considering important quantitative and qualitative aspects of walking in cities. Recent literature shows a variety of approaches involving discrepancies in the definition of walkability, the factors which contribute to it, and methods of assessing them. This paper provides a new understanding of the concept of walkability in the European context. Our approach relies on the extension of methodological competence in transportation, spatial planning and geography by linking new measurement methods for evaluating walkability. We propose an integrated approach to assessing walkability in a comprehensive methodology that combines existing qualitative and GIS-based methods with biosensor technologies and thus captures the perceptions and emotions of pedestrians. This results in an increased plausibility and relevance of the results of walkability analysis by considering the spatial environment and its effect on people.