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Open access

Bartosz Surawski

Summary

The term “knowledge worker” has entered the language of management and economics, becoming popular or even fashionable. Consequently, its definitions are varied and often ambiguous or provisional – which makes it difficult to identify and research such employees. Deeper understanding of the term “knowledge workers” is required.

One of the ways of defining a term is to define its semantic area through borders and overlaps with synonyms and “adjoining” terms. Such comparisons can help to deepen understanding of the central term and reveal its defining features. Therefore, two objectives were set in this study: 1) to compare “knowledge workers” and synonymous and associated terms specifying similarities, differences and areas of overlap, in order to find defining features of “knowledge workers”; and 2) to specify the synonymous and associated terms closest to knowledge workers and useful as proxies for research purposes.

A group of 15 synonyms was selected, including historical and presently applied terms, proposed by various researchers or used in popular language. These terms were first characterized, and then compared to knowledge workers in terms of similarities, differences and areas of overlap. Comparison pointed to a number of features strongly related to knowledge work. Based on them, a sketch definition was proposed:

Knowledge workers work mainly on symbols (representations), transforming them in cognitive processes, which is the main source of added value. To do that, they must command a large body of knowledge equivalent to university education, understood and internalised, grounded in experience and consequently updated. They perform complex tasks, focus on problem-solving, creating knowledge, distributing it and applying to achieve results. They broadly use documents and ICT, and require high level of autonomy.

With respect to the second aim of the study, there are several terms closer in meaning to knowledge workers. Terms with most similarities and least differences include specialists and experts. Of these, specialists have most similarities, while experts are a narrower, more advanced type of specialists. In terms of overlap, categories closest to knowledge workers seem to be specialists/ professionals (wider) and professionals (narrower) – both are large sub-sets of knowledge workers, with specialists leaving fewer remainders. As far as identifiability is concerned, terms related to classifications of occupations are those better defined. Among them, “white-collars”, knowledge producers and distributors, and information workers were measured in older classifications, while specialists/ professionals and managers are categories measured today. Both are defined in detail in ISCO-08, making them identifiable also at the organisational level. Statistics of specialists and managers are gathered regularly in most countries belonging to ILO and are easily accessible. Concluding, specialists/ professionals (wider) are the best proxy group for researching knowledge workers: they possess almost the same key features, overlap closely, leaving smallest remainder, and are defined in detail in an international classification used worldwide to measure their national populations. Selecting a random member of the group, one is practically certain to find a knowledge worker.

Open access

Michał Comporek

Abstract

One of the most important analytical spheres enabling the diagnostic estimation of intentional changes in a company’s financial result is the area of accrual adjustments of net profit, separated in the cash flow statement prepared using the indirect method. The special cognitive value of accrual differences can be seen when the structure of total accruals is separated by those adjustments that are not directly related to the real activity of the enterprise, and are the result of subjective accounting choices. The main objective of the article is to present the selected econometric models used for examining accrual-based earnings management phenomenon in Poland. The analysis includes following regression models, namely: the Jones model, the Kasznik model, the Dechow-Dichev model and the McNichols model. The empirical studies were conducted among listed companies qualified for the Warsaw Stock Exchange indices: WIG-20 and mWIG-40, whose shares were traded for at least ten years in 1998-2017.

Open access

Małgorzata Zaleska and Przemysław Kondraciuk

Abstract

The aim of this article is to systematise the approach to innovation in the economic theory and to define the indicators used to measure the innovativeness of world economies. The considerations are focused on innovation in the banking sector as it is one of the most innovative sectors worldwide. The identification of the stages of innovation development in this branch is worth emphasising, along with the description of its economic and legal determinants.

Open access

Matjaž Štor

Abstract

The main purpose of the article is to motivate experts and researchers in the field of business informatics and logistics to interdisciplinary integration in order to develop a new concept of an information system that will help to strengthen a company's competitive ability. The article analyzes the research carried out between top managers, strategic managers and managers of logistics in the largest Slovenian companies. Two hundred companies were included in the primary survey; 60 managers were selected in a representative sample and at the end 30 leaders in statistical analysis. We sent questionnaires to our managers via e-mail. The data were processed with the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 19, as a method we used linear regression and multiple correlation. With the primary survey, we measured satisfaction of the managers with existing information support for logistics and found that logistical, strategic information professionals need to be even more connected, so that management decisions can then be developed and sustained. On the basis of the obtained data, it can be concluded that sufficient investment of funds in the creation of an appropriate information system fosters the development of business logistics. The originality and value of the article are reflected in the interdisciplinary view of the concept of information support of logistics in the development of new products, in the original connections of various business functions, in the possibility of designing new information solutions and in the sustainable development of new services for the market.

Open access

Kazimierz Krzakiewicz and Szymon Cyfert

Summary

The underlying assumption of this study is that it is possible to define some principles of strategic management. These principles, called strategic orientations, influence and direct the activities of an organisation and are intended to ensure its viability and superior performance. So far, studies into strategic orientations that set out to explain different levels of organisational performance prove that each type of strategic orientation can have a positive impact on business performance.

The purpose of this study is to discuss the key aspects of the three strategic orientations - entrepreneurial, market and organizational learning, outlining the relationship between them and the consequences of their choice on the development of the organization. In addressing entrepreneurial, market and learning orientations, the study has described some of the relationships between orientations and their effect on organisational performance. This has allowed us to identify areas of future studies on strategic orientations – that is to say, their integration, the effect of their configurations on organisational performance in different environments, and internal factors underlying strategic orientations.

Open access

Magdalena Dolata

Summary

The aim of the paper is entering the discussion concerning the sources of competitive advantage in project management in basic local government units in Poland. The focus of the paper is placed on the selected elements of the sources of competitive advantage in basic local government units in Poland, namely tasks implemented in projects. The paper consists of two main parts. In the first part of the paper, a starting point was the presentation of the essence of competitiveness and competitive advantage in the process of project management from the perspective of local government units in Poland. In the second one, the results of the research proceedings concerning the importance of tasks implemented in projects in projects in basic local government units in Poland were discussed. The considerations presented in the paper refer to the results of the research proceedings, which took place in two stages. The first stage of the studies was conducted in 2013 and it concerned the years 2010-2012, the second stage – in 2018, and it concerned the years 2016-2018.

Open access

Martin Čepel

Abstract

A stable, prosperous and competitive economic system in every developed country requires a high-quality business environment in the SME sector. The quality of the business environment is a key factor in the economic development of countries, as it is of a great importance for the growth of the economy´s competitiveness and also for its future and sustainable economic growth. The aim of the article was to quantify the significant social and cultural factors creating the quality of the business environment in the SME segment and to compare their importance in the Czech and Slovak Republic. Within the context of the stated aim of the research, questionnaire survey was carried out among the enterprises operating in the SME segment. Within the research, 312 companies in the CR and 320 companies in Slovakia were addressed. The Z-score method was used to verify the established scientific hypotheses. The research has brought up some interesting results. The research results point to a significant finding that the entrepreneurs in both countries have experienced a relatively low public and political acceptance. On the other hand, the entrepreneurs stated that the family environment motivates them to do business and helps them with their entrepreneurial activities. The assessing of the media impact on the business is quite negative in both countries. Entrepreneurs have largely thought that the media misrepresent doing business in general and do not help to shape the business environment, e.g. through the presentation of business success stories. More than the two-thirds of entrepreneurs in both countries have agreed that the doing business´ advantages outweigh the disadvantages. This research has some limitations, but is has brought interesting findings and a potential inspiration for further research to explore the issue of the quality of the business environment of SMEs.

Open access

Tatiana Ronginska and Artur Doliński

Summary

The article proposes the inclusion of relational styles of managers in difficult situations occurring in an employee team. Four types of relational styles have been distinguished: partner, handler, buddy and coach. The research covered 261 middle and senior managers of one of large corporations in Poland. The research was carried out for two years during the training contract. The article presents the results of relational style research at the training stage, which allowed to diagnose the relational style of the surveyed managers.

Open access

Anna Białek-Jaworska and Justyna Dobroszek

Abstract

An effective knowledge-based economy requires regular cooperation between science and business. This is possible thanks to enterprises that create and implement innovations The paper focuses on the recognition of R&D expenditure. This aims to verify if firms with a scientist on their board are more likely to invest in the R&D. We conduct a tobit panel analysis of over 18,000 Polish private firms combined with data on patents and scientists employed at universities. The findings show that firms with scientists on the supervisory board are likely to invest more in R&D. However, these investment in R&D of firms with a scientist on the board are financial constraint. Their growth depends on access to finance. Therefore, institutions in Poland should support and promote cooperation between science and business, aiming for the realization of the implementation research. This approach requires updated regulations in the accounting area relating to the recognition of R&D inputs and outcomes.

Open access

Ho Thanh Tri, Vo Thi Nga and Juraj Sipko

Abstract

This study focuses on the impact of empowering leadership and challenges work environment on both sale employee’s creativity and innovative work behavior in the Vietnamese banking industry. An empirical test, a structural equation model comprising a sample of 319 sale employees in 15 banks, indicates a strong relationship between sales staff creativity and innovative work behavior. Moreover, the findings indicate that both an empowering leadership and a challenging work environment can trigger sale employees’ creativity. Finally, innovative work behavior has a positive impact on innovative output. In general, this study contributes with some suggestions for bank managers to identify appropriate methods in order to stimulate the creativity and innovative work behavior of employees with the objective of achieving strong and sustainable business performance.