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In vitro Callus induction of aromatic rice depends on the concentration of 2, 4-D

Abstract

Due to growing population, there is an increasing demand of rice production but its productivity is lessened day by day. Aromatic rice has a great demand during festivals in many countries. Kalijira is one of them not only Bangladesh but also all over the world due to its attractive flavor, fine grain and good taste which is generally used to prepare dishes in different special occasions. But there are some limitations to cultivate aromatic rice Such as lack of high yielding variety, fine grain quality, disease or pest resistant, stress and salt tolerance variety and proper cultural management. To overcome this problem tissue culture can be used. However, the lack of a simple and efficient protocol for callus induction in this cereal crop. In this study we tried to find out the potentiality of aromatic rice variety named kalijira for callus induction from mature embryo and to find out the suitable concentration of 2, 4-D for callus induction and proliferation. The highest callus induction were observed when the media was supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D and the frequency of callus induction was lowest in 0.5 mg/L concentration of 2, 4-D. This study will be useful for selecting suitable concentration of growth regulator (2, 4-D) for callus induction in future that will be useful for not only national but also international plant breeders.

Open access
Natural product like “shikonin” might be a hope for Breast cancer cure

Abstract

Among all cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall, both in the developed and less developed country. It is a matter of concern worldwide, that there is no effective drug is available for cancer treatment. Although, Surgery, radiation, hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy, and chemotherapy are being used for treatment of breast cancer in recent years, due to life threatening side effects, these treatment approaches becoming more vulnerable. However, researchers from across the world searching a safe and effective treatment approach that can be a breakthrough for this situation, as it is evident that natural compounds like shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can fight against aggressiveness of breast cancer by regulating apoptosis, necroptosis and estrogen receptor signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed about potential green chemical compounds with their mechanisms of actions, which can be very effective treatment regimen for breast cancer and can be more potent by their proper modifications and further molecular research. Hopefully in future, research focusing on the “shikonin” will open a new door for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients as well as cancer cure.

Open access
Optimization of fermentation condition for cellulase enzyme production from Bacillus sp.

Abstract

Cellulase is an important enzyme in present-day of industrial biotechnology. The current study is concerned with the production and partial characterization of cellulase enzyme from Bacillus sp. The effect of various fermentation conditions for cellulase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Maximum enzyme production was obtained after 24 hours of incubation in fermentation medium with pH 3.5 at 35°C under having agitation at 150 rpm while inoculums volume 1% was applied. Enzyme production was 1.91 times higher after optimizing the production condition as compared to the basal media. Cellulase characterization revealed that optimum activity was at pH 5.5 and 50°C for 50 minutes. About 68% of the activity retained after heating the crude enzyme solution at 50°C for 30 minutes. This nature makes cellulase a suitable candidate for current mainstream biomass conversions for sustainable agriculture and industrial processes.

Open access
The Consequences of Shadow Economy and Corruption on Tax Revenue Performance in Nigeria

Abstract

Shadow economy and corruption are the two harmful activities that do not work in the favour of tax revenue performance. As a result it renders an effective government incapacitated and unable to carry out its social responsibilities. This study considers the effect of the informal economy and graft on tax revenue performance in Nigeria using secondary data that cover a period from 1996 to 2018. This period has been covered by the corruption perception index captured by the Transparency International for Nigeria. Despite the theoretical approaches available in measuring the size of the shadow economy, the ordinary least squares technique is specifically used to perform the multi-regression analysis to arrive at the empirical results which indicate that both the shadow economy and corruption have negative influences on tax revenue performance in Nigeria, although the negative impact of corruption on tax revenue is more robust and significant. Thus, the study suggests among others that the government should step up action against corruption and also address the root causes of shadow economy in order to make the participants of the informal sector willing to formalize their businesses and voluntarily comply with tax payment obligations.

Open access
The Dynamics of Savings Mobilisation in Lesotho

Abstract

This paper provides a conceptual analysis of the dynamics of savings in Lesotho for the period 1960 to 2017. The study is motivated by the low and sometimes negative savings rate and the declining level of economic growth prevailing in Lesotho during the period from 1960 to 2017. The study analyses the behaviour of savings in Lesotho, using the savings trends for the country ever since it obtained independence in 1966. The study further examines the policies that the government of Lesotho has implemented in order to promote savings in the country. The government adopted a policy on rural savings and credit schemes as a means of promoting savings in Lesotho. The purpose of the policy is to improve access to credit for the rural population. The study has identified some challenges that impede savings mobilization in Lesotho. The major savings challenge in Lesotho is the lack of banking facilities in rural areas.

Open access
The Economic Growth and the Opportunity for the Private Equity Funds to Divest: An Empirical Analysis for Eastern Europe

Abstract

The author studies the private equity divestments in Eastern Europe and tests a long-term relation between these divestments and the real GDP variation. This research paper focuses on a sample covering the period 2000-2013 which considers the dynamics of the private equity divestments during the last financial crisis. The empirical analysis follows the methodology developed by Granger (1969), Toda and Yamamoto (1995), Dufour and Renault (1998), Konya (2004), Foresti (2006) and Onuoha, Okonkwo, Okoro, Kingsley (2018). The analysis shows that Eastern European private equity divestment market is still emerging characterized by high volatilities. The results prove that GDP recession explains in at certain degree the evolution of private equity divestments during the crisis. However, the Granger causality test shows that the information provided by the past variation of the real GDP cannot allow us to predict the short-term movements of private equity divestments in Eastern Europe.

Open access
Financial aspects of research and development policy in the European Union

Summary

In the article the author has attempted to realise the following goals:

1) identifying and critical assessment of the share of expenditure on research and development (R&D) in the gross domestic product (GDP) borne by business entities concentrated in four sectors (enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit institutions) and jointly in all sectors. This meter is treated as an indirect measure of the level of managerial activity in shaping the research and development policy,

2) checking the thesis that R&D expenditure are changeable and differ in the particular Member States and does not give a clear positive picture of the systematic and dynamic growth of research and development activity in these countries.

The article was developed using the following research methods: critical-cognitive analysis of the literature; statistical and comparative analysis of the “Eurostat” empirical material; the projection.

The statistical and comparative analysis of the secondary empirical material “Eurostat” illustrating the share of expenditure on research and development in the gross domestic product was used to check the thesis. The results of the analysis confirm the rightness of the research thesis.

Open access
Innovative Behavior of the Poznań Agglomeration Inhabitants in the Transport Services Market

Summary

The development of information and communication technologies, including in particular the modern development of mobile technologies, has an undeniable impact on people’s lives and, consequently, on consumers’ market behaviour. The growing popularity and capabilities of mobile devices, as well as the increasing availability of mobile Internet access, mean that in many markets companies are redefining their business models, in which the activities conducted via the Internet play an increasingly important role. This is particularly visible on the market of individual and public transport services, where thanks to mobile devices, as well as in consistency with trends in consumer market behaviours and the development of cities in accordance with the smart city concept, for several years now we can observe the emergence of innovative alternatives to traditional forms of transport. The pace of appearance of product innovations on the market depends, of course, to a large extent on the level of acceptance of innovation by consumers. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of innovativeness of the inhabitants of the Poznań agglomeration in the use of transport solutions available in Poznań. The research part presents the results of own research conducted in 2019 on a sample of 795 respondents. They showed that the inhabitants of the Poznań agglomeration are not afraid to use product innovations on the market of transport services and use them to a greater extent than in the case of the general population.

Open access
Is the Nigerian Stock Market Efficient? Pre and Post 2007-2009 Meltdown Analysis

Abstract

Efficient market hypothesis asserts movements in asset prices are due to significant changes in information. The financial crisis of 2007-2009 originated from subprime mortgages in the United States and affected African countries through local stock markets. This study evaluates the Nigerian stock market efficiency in the pre and post financial meltdown of 2007-2009. GARCH models under three error distributional assumptions were used. The data covers January 2010 to December 2016 divided into pre and post meltdown. Findings indicate that in the pre and post meltdown, the Nigerian stock market is inefficient in the weak form while using the meltdown as event window, the market is efficient in the semi-strong form. It was recommended that prompt release of financial information by quoted firms should be on-line real time and mandatory to discourage rumour and speculative activities. Authority should not only spell out punishments but should be strict and firm about it.

Open access
Reasons of Polish young potential employees’ interest In a university as the employer vr perceiving its employees

Summary

The article has a theoretical-empirical character. Its main goal was to identify reasons of young potential employees’ interest in working at a university. To prepare the theoretical part, the method of cognitive-critical analysis of world literature on marketing, management and HRM was applied. The results of this analysis show an existing cognitive gap and a research gap in the scope of considerations about reasons of interest of the mentioned group of employees in a university as the employer. Striving for reducing both gaps some empirical researches were conducted using the questionnaire method to gather the primary data which were analyzed statistically using the method of exploratory factor analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test, etc. The obtained results made it possible to check three research hypotheses. The possibility to perform a satisfying job was not the key reason for the respondents’ interest in working at a university. The internal structure of reasons for the respondents’ interest in a university as the employer was different for the following two groups: 1/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland better than those who work in other organizations; 2/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland as well as those who work in other organizations. The way of perceiving employees of an university was a feature statistically significantly differentiating the reasons of the respondents’ interest in starting work at the university only in the case of high social prestige and high wages.

Open access