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The Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Precipitation During the Driest Year from the Last Decade

Abstract

In order to investigate the precipitation chemistry, studies were carried out from January 2013 to December 2013 in Odorheiu Secuiesc and Miercurea Ciuc, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. During a period of eleven years (2006 – 2016), 2013 was the driest year. The rainwater samples were analyzed for pH, major anions and cations. HCO3 concentrations were calculated based on the empirical relationship between pH and HCO3 . NH4 +, Ca2+, SO4 2− were the dominant ions in precipitation at both sites. The pH values varied from 6.75 to 7.46 Miercurea Ciuc, and from 6.69 to 7.67 in Odorheiu Secuiesc. The neutralization was mainly brought by Ca2+ and NH4 +. Estimated ratios of sea-salt fraction (SSF), non-sea-salt fraction (NSSF), and results from Spearman’s rank correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showed that the acidic ions (SO4 2−, NO3 ) were derived from anthropogenic activities, NH4 + from soil fertilization, while Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ originated from terrestrial source. These influence the precipitations ionic content, especially during droughts. Spatial variations and the rim effect of the Eastern Carpathians on precipitation chemistry is also shown.

Open access
Application of Geographic Information Systems for Flood Risk Analysis: A Case Study from Accra Metropolitan Area

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to identify high flood risk zones in AMA. The study also used questionnaires to assess local knowledge on what accounts for the high flood risk in their community. Spatial analysis techniques were used to model flood risk based on the following contributory factors; land cover, soil, drainage density, topography and proximity to rivers. The results show that high flood risk areas covered 46.3km2(20%), moderate risk area, 72.9km2(31.6%), low risk area 41.5km2(18%) and very low risk areas, about 6.7km2(2.9%). The high flood risk zones were low-lying areas below 50 meters above sea level and closely associated with poor drainage systems. People perceived not just low-lying areas as a paramount reason accounting for flooding but also very bad waste disposal habit of the public. These offsets the efforts of waste management companies to keep drains free of refuse.

Open access
Aspects Regarding the Linseed Oil Culture in Romania in the Context of the Ongoing Climate Change

Abstract

Nowadays, at global level, the linseed oil culture is more important economically than the linseed cultures for fiber. The world's largest linseed production is the linseed oil, followed by the culture for the consumption of seeds and for fibers. In this context, this study presents the evolution and the main trends in the production of the linseed oil for Romania in the period 2008-2017, the analysis being based on the values of specific indicators, namely the areas cultivated with linseeds and the production of the linseed oil achieved at the national level, macro-regions and development regions, both as a total and in the private sector as well. This analysis will be done in the context of the ongoing climate change also affecting Romania's territory. Analysing the results, one can notice that, although after 1990 the cultivated areas have decreased dramatically, since the integration of Romania into the EU, the linseed oil cultivated areas have started to grow. Thus, in 2017, Romania was the sixth EU linseed oil producer in the EU, with the South-East region holding a significant share of the cultivated areas.

Open access
Considerations on the Legal Protection of the Atmosphere

Abstract

Air quality is an issue of general, global interest, which requires the implementation of appropriate environmental policies, taking into account the essential connection between the world economy and the environment. Air is an important natural element of the environment, vital for human life and health, as well as for fauna and flora, and it needs to be protected by all means, including legal methods.

Lately, scientific studies and researches have shown that the chemical structure of the atmosphere is changing for natural or anthropogenic causes, which requires more effective monitoring of the impact of human activity on the atmosphere, doubled by the implementation of radical measures, including legal ones, meant to insure the protection of this environmental element.

The increase in the quantity of polluting gases eliminated into the atmosphere causes global warming, destroying the ozone layer and generating other imbalances in the natural environment.

In these conditions, and since pollution knows no political-administrative borders, being a global phenomenon, there is an absolute need for international cooperation based on conventions and treatises on this topic, or directives from international bodies and organisations, and at a national level, the environmental legislation must aim to protect the air in the troposphere as well as the other elements outside the troposphere, such as the ozone layer, which is part of the stratosphere.

Open access
Economic Aspects of Manure Management and Practices for Sustainable Agriculture in Turkey

Abstract

Turkish livestock sector plays very important role in the Turkish GDP and the use of manure affects the environment but the farming sector want the farmers to employ the use of more integrated manure practice. The study assessed the economic impacts of integrated manure and chemical fertilizer used and the manure management practices sustainable for Turkish agriculture. Turkey is dependent on foreign countries not only for energy but for chemical fertilizers raw materials. High price of chemical fertilizers is one of the negative impact, manure substitution will lead to stable macro-economy, and environmental friendly economy and agricultural productivity will also impacts. To achieve these impacts, some manure practices suitable for sustainable rural development in Turkey was assessed.

Open access
Extreme Variabilities of Rainfall and Runoff Regime within Vulnerable Hydrographic River Basins. Case Study: Elan River Basin, 2016 (Romania)

Abstract

The present paper analyzes the extreme variabilities of rainfall and runoff regime within vulnerable hydrographic river basins, focused on a case study: Elan river basin, year 2016. This year, due to excess rainfall, the Elan River basin was affected by torrential rainfall, warned against by orange and red code hydrological forecasts. For this reason, this study makes an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of the surface runoff also considering the main flood events occurring in this river basin. The impact of liquid precipitation on the surface runoff will be highlighted by a statistical analysis of the relationship between monthly average flows and the sum of monthly precipitation in the river basin. The monthly flows series from the Murgeni and Poșta Elan hydrometric stations were capitalized through appropriate statistical analyses. Maximum flows were reported to the thresholds values corresponding to the Defense Levels.

Open access
The Impact of the Absence of Communication on the Success of Rehabilitation Projects of the Built Heritage: The Case of the Old City of Constantine

Abstract

Since the 1960s of the 20th century, research on the success of projects have been updated and are increasing in cyclical projects (event-centered projects) which appear regularly in excess of budget, or even sometimes incomplete when the event or subject of their creation is over. Within this context, with the appointment of Constantine as the Arab Capital of Culture 2015, the Algerian Government has registered 76 rehabilitation projects for the old buildings of the city, under the guardianship of the Ministry of Culture. The last has designated the Office National de Gestion et d’Exploitation des Biens Culturels Protégés (OGEBCP) (National Office for the Management and Exploitation of Preserved Cultural Property) as a contracting authority assistant, given its considerable experience in building management in the city of Tlemcen, Capital of Islamic Culture in 2011. During our investigation, none of the selected projects has been completed, while the allocated budget has been entirely consumed. Why? Who is responsible for this failure? Our role is to investigate the weak links in these rehabilitation projects to avoid future similar failure. It seems like the success of a project depends on the behavior of the main actors responsible for it as well as a number of technical skills that seem difficult to bring together in a single individual. Therefore, we focus on the actors of the project. The process of conservation operations is a delicate one to conduct for the success of the project. The conditioning of shorter deadlines in full eventcentered projects is in fact one of the most difficult challenges. We propose to analyze the management of communication between the project actors assuming that, an inappropriate management could have negative impacts on the success

Open access
The Influence of Evapotranspiration and Wet Deposition on the Variations of PM10 Concentration in the Ciuc Basin

Abstract

Trend analysis for potential evapotranspiration (PET) and climatic water balance (CWB) is critical in identifying the particulate matter concentration (PM10) variations. The PET is computed based on the monthly average temperature for the Ciuc basin using Thornthwaite parameterization. The highest levels of evapotranspiration appear during the months of May and June. The lowest levels of particulate concentration characterize the period during April-June. Precipitation is highest during May and June. Particulate matter in the highest cloud water is 0.014 µg/m3/mm during April and 0.010 µg/m3/mm during May. One can observe a significant level of negative correlation between particulate matter concentration, the potential evapotranspiration and precipitation.

Open access
Internet of Things and the Environment

Abstract

Along with the well-known attributes of mankind's future (sustainable, socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly), the last few years we was witnessing the appearance of a new digital attribute. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the ongoing digital revolution that attempts to put into practice all the benefits of explosive development of digital technologies and associated communication capabilities. The huge amount of information collected by computerized planning, production management, technology risk practice and health hazards monitoring has to serve both economic development, advanced management resources, financial profit, and a better protected environment. The IoT Revolution is in its early stages and its focus is on assuring the associated infrastructure as quickly as possible (hardware, BigData software, sensor systems, protected sensitive data, safe communications). The first results are expected in optimizing and streamlining technologies in the management of non-renewable resources. It is appreciated that by 2030, the value added by IoT will amount to about $14 trillion in industry alone. But it would be a mistake to stop the benefits of IoT there. The authors devise a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Traits) analysis, and evaluate the benefits and risks of aligning environmental/social policies to the IoT, proposing a brevity of measures to ensure that the sustainability is considered in the IoT implementation at all stages and at all levels: enterprise, industrial, geographical area, global region. The IoT vision and mission are presented in light of this approach, strategic objectives and important action directions. It also highlights the ethical issues related to the development of an interconnected world through IoT (where unrestrained access to information is stopped, who and for whose control this access has been made, etc.). The terms IoE (Internet of Environment) and IoS (Internet of Sustainability) are suggested.

Open access
Investigation of Water Loss from Pipes Located in Various Relief Features of Iaşi County

Abstract

Water losses are present in all water supply system pipes. Their parameters and value vary depending on the constructional and functional features of the pipes (diameter, material, pressure, embedding environment, location, position etc.). The phenomenon is present in all water supply systems networks in Romania as well as globally. The water supply pipes within the regional water supply system are located in areas with diversified relief, from plateaus and hills to plains. The studies and researches were carried out in the geographical placement area of the Timişeşti-Iaşi pipeline. The geographic area studied is enclosed in Siret and Prut hydrographic basins. The paper aims to establish a correlation between the detection methods of water leaks from pipes and the areal relief features in Iaşi County. At the same time, it is highlighted the impact of the variation of the geographical relief characteristics on the water loss management on different type of pipes.

Open access