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Open access

Thomas Turner

Abstract

Drawing on the Quarterly National Household Survey (QNHS), this paper examines changes in the proportion of people aged over 50, active in the Irish labour market from 1998 to 2014. Results indicate that an increasing number of workers over 50 remain active, due mainly to the dramatic increase in the proportion of older females remaining in the labour force. By 2014 the 50 to 64 age group accounted for a quarter of all economically active people in the labour market between 15 and 64. Older workers are more likely to be employees and less likely to be employers or self-employed in 2014 compared to 1998. Older workers in lower-level occupations, particularly over the age of 60, are more likely to remain economically active. Level of education is strongly associated with the likelihood of older workers remaining economically active, particularly for the 50-59 age group and for females. .

Open access

Lorraine Ryan and Joseph Wallace

Abstract

This paper examines the conditions under which annual hours (AH) are likely to succeed or fail and the role of workplace partnership in delivering mutual gains. We explore two case studies, in one company with a positive experience and in a second where AH were regarded as a failed initiative. The case studies are constructed from interviews with trade union and management representatives in the companies involved; from secondary sources and from a worker survey. The findings echo previous research that AH can deliver mutual gains in both the presence and absence of workplace partnership (Author and Author, 2016) and that delivery of real mutual gains is the key driver of the long term viability of AH. However, the balance of mutual gains is subject to change and is strongly influenced by structural factors determining the suitability of AH to the particular enterprise.

Open access

Thomas Joseph McCabe and Sally Anne Sambrook

Abstract

This study explores the effects of New Public Management (NPM) on trust amongst nursing professionals, nurses and nurse ward managers within the British National Health Service (NHS). Thirty-nine nurses and nurse ward managers, recruited randomly, participated in semi-structured interviews. The original data, collected in 2000-2002, are re-analysed from a discourse analysis perspective. The findings support and extend contemporary research. They show that nurses have a strong professional identity and commitment and that increasing managerialism is eroding trust. Nurses both accommodate and resist managerialist discourses. They conceptualise trust in terms of their own ward environment, line-manager and colleagues. Trust is reciprocal and related to previous experiences and other factors. Trust is beneficial to healthcare organisations, healthcare professionals and their patients. Good communication and openness positively influence the development of trust. Nurse ward managers play a pivotal role in translating contested managerialist discourse into nursing practice to sustain trust and effect professional patient care.

Open access

Wioletta Małota

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the research was to find out the correlation between the motivation and costs of internal or external locus of control and the propensity to mentor. Investment of time and personal energy was regarded as factors with an internal locus of control, whereas a lack of mentee’s achievement, problems caused by a mentee, unhealthy or unfriendly relation, and a risk to be replaced by a mentee were regarded as factors with an external locus of control. In the case of internal factors, their locus of control is the mentor him/herself while, in external factors, their locus is outside of the mentor and lies in a situation or an environment.

Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional study among Polish managers.

Findings: First, the results show that uniquely intrinsic motivation relates to the propensity to mentor, while extrinsic motivation has no importance. Second, before deciding to mentor, managers estimate the costs of mentoring: the higher they are the lower the propensity to mentor. Third, the costs related to the internal locus of control – time and personal energy invested by a mentor in mentoring – are most important when deciding to mentor. The risk of destroying a mentor’s reputation, problems caused by a mentee, unfriendly or unhealthy relationship and a risk to be replaced by a mentee emerged as of little importance. Fourth, previous experience as a mentor or mentee positively influences the propensity to mentor.

Value: The study contributes to existing research, theory, and practice in the field of organizational behavior in the context of mentoring. The findings shed light on decision patterns in managers’ propensity to mentor and thoroughly explore the role of the anticipated cost of mentoring.

Open access

Bartosz Surawski

Summary

The term “knowledge worker” has entered the language of management and economics, becoming popular or even fashionable. Consequently, its definitions are varied and often ambiguous or provisional – which makes it difficult to identify and research such employees. Deeper understanding of the term “knowledge workers” is required.

One of the ways of defining a term is to define its semantic area through borders and overlaps with synonyms and “adjoining” terms. Such comparisons can help to deepen understanding of the central term and reveal its defining features. Therefore, two objectives were set in this study: 1) to compare “knowledge workers” and synonymous and associated terms specifying similarities, differences and areas of overlap, in order to find defining features of “knowledge workers”; and 2) to specify the synonymous and associated terms closest to knowledge workers and useful as proxies for research purposes.

A group of 15 synonyms was selected, including historical and presently applied terms, proposed by various researchers or used in popular language. These terms were first characterized, and then compared to knowledge workers in terms of similarities, differences and areas of overlap. Comparison pointed to a number of features strongly related to knowledge work. Based on them, a sketch definition was proposed:

Knowledge workers work mainly on symbols (representations), transforming them in cognitive processes, which is the main source of added value. To do that, they must command a large body of knowledge equivalent to university education, understood and internalised, grounded in experience and consequently updated. They perform complex tasks, focus on problem-solving, creating knowledge, distributing it and applying to achieve results. They broadly use documents and ICT, and require high level of autonomy.

With respect to the second aim of the study, there are several terms closer in meaning to knowledge workers. Terms with most similarities and least differences include specialists and experts. Of these, specialists have most similarities, while experts are a narrower, more advanced type of specialists. In terms of overlap, categories closest to knowledge workers seem to be specialists/ professionals (wider) and professionals (narrower) – both are large sub-sets of knowledge workers, with specialists leaving fewer remainders. As far as identifiability is concerned, terms related to classifications of occupations are those better defined. Among them, “white-collars”, knowledge producers and distributors, and information workers were measured in older classifications, while specialists/ professionals and managers are categories measured today. Both are defined in detail in ISCO-08, making them identifiable also at the organisational level. Statistics of specialists and managers are gathered regularly in most countries belonging to ILO and are easily accessible. Concluding, specialists/ professionals (wider) are the best proxy group for researching knowledge workers: they possess almost the same key features, overlap closely, leaving smallest remainder, and are defined in detail in an international classification used worldwide to measure their national populations. Selecting a random member of the group, one is practically certain to find a knowledge worker.

Open access

Marioara Pateşan, Alina Balagiu and Dana Zechia

Abstract

Introducing vocabulary to students is not always an easy task. Due to music and movies that young people are exposed to today, vocabulary acquisition is more often not taken seriously. Young people can hum or repeat sentences from a movie that impress them and think that they are able to communicate in a foreign language. In an academic environment you realize that each new vocabulary word is like a brick needed to build up a whole wall; is a small step that help you enrich your abilities to speak, write and understand all the English you might need at a certain time in your professional life. Studies have shown that the more words you know in a foreign language the more you can use it in real life situations. In this study we will approach the theoretical studies related to vocabulary acquisition as well as some practical exercises that might be used in class.

Open access

Andrei Șandor

Abstract

Nowadays, smart devices like computers, tablets, and smartphones allow transmitting the information everywhere, with high speed, over the World Wide Web. However, risks regarding data integrity, privacy and security when using the Internet, increased dramatically, as methods designed to exploit the system’s vulnerabilities are more and more sophisticated. Therefore the need for people working in professional environments to protect their private data when using unsecure connections, by employing advanced tools. There are multiple solutions, but we will focus on the use of virtualization software like VMware or Oracle Virtual Box, together with traditional privacy measures (use of proxies and VPN’s). Today’s smart devices store an important amount of data about their owners and, in most of the cases, people don’t even realize this. Installing and using protection means is often not enough. They have to be properly setup in order to ensure the desired level of security, or anonymity, when using the Internet, and require for the military personnel a good knowledge not only about cyber vulnerabilities and risks, but also technical capabilities and features of the employed security solutions.

DISCLAIMER: This paper expresses the views, interpretations, and independent position of the authors. It should not be regarded as an official document, nor expressing formal opinions or policies, of NATO or the HUMINT Centre of Excellence (HCOE).

Open access

Juraj Šimko

Abstract

The article focuses on the basic characteristic of military development in the second half of the 20th century. On pursuance of William Lind´s concept or theory of Four Generations of War, the article describes the culmination of the Third Generation of War, based on manoeuver and mobility, coupled with air superiority. The first part deals with issues of US technical dominance in the military, the development of new ways of fighting, especially the airmobile tactics used in South Vietnam. The second part of the article focuses on the specific conditions of the Vietnam War that the US Army, for the first time, had to face while applying elements of the Fourth Generation of War. The final part focuses on the issues of implementing the theory of Four Generations of War into the Armed Forces Academy education to better understand the development of military in modern times.

Open access

Cornel Haţiegan, Mihaela Dorica Stroia and Eugen Răduca

Abstract

A common problem with hydraulic turbines is the rupture of turbine horizontal shaft in the area between the rotor and its bearing, caused by different stresses [1], as well as problems caused by excessive bearing wear, vibration caused by instability of lubricant film from bearings, lubrication supply interruption of hydrodynamic bearings, gripping, decrease of bearing stiffness due to fatigue of supporting structures. In addition, during operation, vibration appear depending on exciter forces or bearing type. In present paper we present an analysis of vibrations measured on a subassembly found at hydraulic turbines. For the experimental subassembly was used a straight-lined shaft, having variable cross-section, and a sliding type bearing. The tests were made for bearings of different dimensions and materials. Vibrations were measured on two axes for established case studies and results were compared.

Open access

Annamaria Sârbu, Simona Miclăuş, Paul Bechet and Iulian Bouleanu

Abstract

In this article we propose the use of the persistence spectrum to accurately assess the user’s exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by new generation of communication terminals. Persistent display view available within a Real Time Spectrum Analyzer (RTSA) enables a graphical observation of the main statistical parameters of a signal. A simple case study of exposure assessment was conducted by measuring the electric field strength in the close proximity of a mobile phone operated in a LTE-Advanced mobile communication network. The proposed measurement procedure is presented and then applied to a limited number of operating situations (VoIP, Video streaming, File upload, File download). We made use of the persistence spectrum capabilities to directly access the signal strength statistics in time. By this procedure we demonstrate a supplementary facility that enables direct visual tracing of exposure dynamics during real time usage of a specific mobile application.